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Abdominal Radiology

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 154–179 | Cite as

Bilateral adrenal abnormalities: imaging review of different entities

  • Meshal Ali Alshahrani
  • Mnahi Bin SaeedanEmail author
  • Tariq Alkhunaizan
  • Ibtisam Musallam Aljohani
  • Fahad Mohammed Azzumeea
Pictorial essay
  • 269 Downloads

Abstract

Bilateral adrenal abnormalities are not infrequently encountered during routine daily radiology practice. The differential diagnoses of bilateral adrenal abnormalities include neoplastic and non-neoplastic entities. The bilateral adrenal tumors include metastasis, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, adenoma, and myelolipoma. Non-neoplastic bilateral adrenal masses include infectious processes and haematomas. There are different diffuse bilateral adrenal changes such as adrenal atrophy, adrenal enlargement, adrenal calcifications, and altered adrenal enhancement. In this pictorial review article, we will discuss the imaging features of these entities with emphasis on their clinical implications.

Keywords

Bilateral adrenal Adrenal adenoma Metastasis Lymphoma Pheochromocytoma Neuroblastoma Tuberculosis Hematoma Adrenal hyperplasia Addison Wolman Hypoperfusion complex Adrenal infarction 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was not supported by grant funding. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was not obtained for this retrospective review.

Supplementary material

261_2018_1670_MOESM1_ESM.tif (89 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Algorithm 1 Causes of diffuse bilateral non-mass like adrenal enlargement. (TIFF 89 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyKing Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.National Guard Health Affairs, King Abdulaziz Medical CityMedical Imaging DepartmentRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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