T2 mapping of cartilage and menisci at 3T in healthy subjects with knee malalignment: initial experience
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To assess the relationship between knee alignment and T2 values of femorotibial cartilage and menisci in healthy subjects at 3 T.
Materials and methods
Thirty-six healthy subjects divided into three subgroups of 12 neutral, 12 varus, and 12 valgus alignment of the femorotibial joint were investigated on 3-T MR scanner using a 2D multi-echo turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence for T2 mapping. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to determine any statistically significant differences in subregional T2 values of femorotibial cartilage and menisci among the three subgroups of healthy subjects.
Lateral femoral anterior cartilage subregion (52 ± 3 ms, mean ± standard deviation; 53 ± 2 ms) had significantly higher T2 values (p < 0.05) than medial femoral anterior cartilage subregion (51 ± 2 ms; 51 ± 2 ms) in varus and valgus groups, respectively. There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in T2 values of tibial central cartilage subregion between lateral and medical compartment among varus, valgus, and neutral subgroups. Lateral body segment of meniscus (41 ± 3 ms) had significantly higher (p < 0.05) T2 values than medial body segment (40 ± 2 ms) in the varus subgroup.
Some degree of correlation between knee alignment and subregional T2 values of femorotibial cartilage and menisci exists in healthy subjects. These findings indicate that T2 mapping may be sensitive in assessing the load distribution pattern of human cartilage and menisci with knee alignment abnormality, which may be used as reference baseline when understanding the occurrence and progression of knee osteoarthritis.
KeywordsCartilage Meniscus T2 mapping Alignment Osteoarthritis
Role of the funding sources
This study was funded in part by Suzhou Bureau of Science and Technology, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No.: sys2018058). This work was also partially supported by research grant K512801315 from the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars from the Ministry of Education, China. This research study was supported in part by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), China, too. No separate funding was used specifically for this research work. The funding sources had no involvement in the study design, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, the writing of the report, and the decision to submit the paper for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 20.Takao S, Nguyen TB, Yu HJ, Hagiwara S, Kaneko Y, Nozaki T, et al. T1rho and T2 relaxation times of the normal adult knee meniscus at 3T: analysis of zonal differences. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2017;18:202. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-017-1560-y.