Skeletal Radiology

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 671–682 | Cite as

Quantitative mapping of glenohumeral cartilage in asymptomatic subjects using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging

  • Carly A. Lockard
  • Katharine J. Wilson
  • Charles P. Ho
  • Richard C. Shin
  • J. Christoph Katthagen
  • Peter J. Millett
Scientific Article

Abstract

Objective

The purpose of this study was to develop quantitative T2 mapping methodology in asymptomatic shoulders for the entire mappable region of the glenohumeral cartilage in the coronal and sagittal planes, to assess the feasibility and limitations of the development of a diagnostic tool for future application in symptomatic patients.

Materials and methods

Twenty-one asymptomatic volunteers underwent sagittal and coronal glenohumeral T2 mapping, as the spherical geometry of the humeral head obviates the need to evaluate the entire glenohumeral cartilage in a single plane. The humeral head cartilage orthogonal to the mapping plane was manually segmented in the sagittal and coronal planes, whereas the glenoid cartilage was segmented in the coronal plane. Cartilage T2 summary statistics were calculated and coverage in each mapping plane was qualitatively assessed.

Results

The mean ± standard deviation of the glenoid cartilage T2 was 38 ± 2 ms. The coronal and sagittal mapping planes captured different regions of the humeral head with some overlap: inferior–medial to superior–lateral versus superior/superior–lateral to anterior–lateral and posterior–lateral respectively. The mean humeral head cartilage T2 in the coronal plane was 41 ± 3 ms, which was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the sagittal plane mean of 34 ± 2 ms.

Conclusion

This study measured characteristic glenoid and humeral head cartilage T2 values over the area mappable with two planes. Importantly, this study demonstrated that two-dimensional mapping in a single plane or two combined planes cannot capture the entirety of the semi-spherical humeral head cartilage. This highlights the need for three-dimensional T2 mapping techniques in the shoulder.

Keywords

T2 mapping Glenohumeral Cartilage Quantitative MRI Asymptomatic Shoulder 3 Tesla 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflicts of interest

All authors received Steadman Philippon Research Institute research support from: Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Arthrex, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Ossur Americas, Vail Valley Medical Center.

Charles P. Ho: Steadman Philippon Research Institute (Research Advisory Committee), Rotation Medical (consultant).

Peter J. Millett: Arthrex (consultant, royalties), Game Ready, VuMedi (stock, stock options), Springer publishing (royalties), Steadman Philippon Research Institute (Research Advisory Committee).

References

  1. 1.
    Ruckstuhl H, de Bruin ED, Stussi E, Vanwanseele B. Post-traumatic glenohumeral cartilage lesions: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008;9:107.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Link TM, Stahl R, Woertler K. Cartilage imaging: motivation, techniques, current and future significance. Eur Radiol. 2017;17:1135–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liess C, Lusse S, Karger N, Heller M, Gluer CC. Detection of changes in cartilage water content using MRI T2 mapping in vivo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002;10:907–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Joseph GB, Baum T, Alizai H, et al. Baseline mean and heterogeneity of MR cartilage T2 are associated with morphologic degeneration of cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow over 3 years—data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012;20:727–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Urish KL, Keffalas MG, Durkin JR, Miller DJ, Chu CR, Mosher TJ. T2 texture index of cartilage can predict early symptomatic OA progression: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013;21:1550–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Surowiec RK, Lucas EP, Ho CP. Quantitative MRI in the evaluation of articular cartilage health: reproducibility and variability with a focus on T2 mapping. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22:1385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lazik A, Theysohn JM, Geis C, et al. 7 Tesla quantitative hip MRI: T1, T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage in healthy volunteers. Eur Radiol. 2016;26:1245–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gallo MC, Wyatt C, Pedoia V, et al. T1rho and T2 relaxation times are associated with progression of hip osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016;24:1399–407.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lim Y, Cha JG, Yi J, et al. Topographical and sex variations in the T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage in the ankle joints of healthy young adults using 3.0T MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2015;3:455–62.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mosher TJ, Dardzinski BJ, Smith MB. Human articular cartilage: influence of aging and early symptomatic degeneration on the spatial variation of T2—preliminary findings at 3 T. Radiology. 2000;214:259–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Surowiec RK, Lucas EP, Fitzcharles EK, et al. T2 values in articular cartilage in clinically relevant subregions of the asymptomatic knee. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2014;22:1404–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anz AW, Lucas EP, Fitzcharles EK, Surowiec RK, Millett PJ, Ho CP. MRI T2 mapping of the asymptomatic supraspinatus tendon by age and imaging plane using clinically relevant subregions. Eur J Radiol. 2014;83:801–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ganal E, Ho CP, Wilson KJ, et al. Quantitative MRI characterization of arthroscopically verified supraspinatus pathology: comparison of tendon tears, tendinosis and asymptomatic supraspinatus tendons with T2 mapping. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016;24:2216–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Matsuki K, Watanabe A, Ochiai S, et al. Quantitative evaluation of fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles using T2 mapping. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014;23:636–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maizlin ZV, Clement JJ, Patola WB, et al. T2 mapping of articular cartilage of glenohumeral joint with routine MRI correlation—initial experience. HSS J. 2009;5:61–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee S-Y, Park H-J, Kwon H-J, et al. T2 relaxation times of the glenohumeral joint at 3.0 T MRI in patients with and without primary and secondary arthritis. Acta Radiol. 2015;56:1388–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kang Y, Choi JA. T2 mapping of articular cartilage of the glenohumeral joint at 3.0 T in healthy volunteers: a feasibility study. Skeletal Radiol. 2016;45:915–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nardo L, Carballido-Gamio J, Tang S, Lai A, Krug R. Quantitative assessment of morphology T1rho and T2 of shoulder cartilage using MRI. Eur Radiol 2016;26:4656–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bittersohl B, Miese FR, Dekkers C, et al. T2* mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in cartilage (dGEMRIC) of glenohumeral cartilage in asymptomatic volunteers at 3 T. Eur Radiol. 2013;23:1367–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bittersohl B, Kircher J, Miese FR, et al. T2* mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in cartilage (dGEMRIC) of humeral articular cartilage—a histologically controlled study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2015;24:1644–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Apprich S, Mamisch TC, Welsch GH, et al. Quantitative T2 mapping of the patella at 3.0T is sensitive to early cartilage degeneration, but also to loading of the knee. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:e438–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dietrich O, Raya JG, Reeder SB, Reiser MF, Schoenberg SO. Measurement of signal-to-noise ratios in MR images: influence of multichannel coils, parallel imaging, and reconstruction filters. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;26:375–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing [The R Project for Statistical Computing Web site]. Available at: http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 27 July 2016.
  24. 24.
    Fleiss JL. Statistical methods for rates and proportions. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 1981.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hsu H-C, Luo Z-P, Stone JJ, Huang T-H, An K-N. Correlation between rotator cuff tear and glenohumeral degeneration. Acta Orthop Scand. 2003;74:89–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xia Y. Magic-angle effect in magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage: a review. Investig Radiol. 2000;35:602–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Graichen H, Jakob J, von Eisenhart-Rothe R, Englmeier KH, Reiser M, Eckstein F. Validation of cartilage volume and thickness measurements in the human shoulder with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003;11:475–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISS 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carly A. Lockard
    • 1
  • Katharine J. Wilson
    • 1
  • Charles P. Ho
    • 1
  • Richard C. Shin
    • 1
  • J. Christoph Katthagen
    • 1
  • Peter J. Millett
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Steadman Philippon Research InstituteVailUSA
  2. 2.The Steadman ClinicVailUSA

Personalised recommendations