Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 23–24, pp 9251–9262 | Cite as

Yarrowia lipolytica: more than an oleaginous workhorse

  • Kelly K. Miller
  • Hal S. AlperEmail author


Microbial production of fuels and chemicals offers a means by which sustainable product manufacture can be achieved. In this regard, Yarrowia lipolytica is a unique microorganism suitable for a diverse array of biotechnological applications. As a robust oleaginous yeast, it has been well studied for production of fuels and chemicals derived from fatty acids. However, thanks in part to newfound genetic tools and metabolic understanding, Y. lipolytica has been explored for high-level production of a variety of non-lipid products. This mini-review will discuss some of the recent research surrounding the ability of Y. lipolytica to support bio-based chemical production outside the realm of fatty acid metabolism including polyketides, terpenes, carotenoids, pentose phosphate-derived products, polymers, and nanoparticles.


Yarrowia lipolytica Biocatalysis Metabolic engineering Yeast 



This work was funded through the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation.

Compliance with ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abdel-Mawgoud AM, Markham KA, Palmer CM, Liu N, Stephanopoulos G, Alper HS (2018) Metabolic engineering in the host Yarrowia lipolytica. Metab Eng 50:192–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aditiya HB, Mahlia TMI, Chong WT, Nur H, Sebayang AH (2016) Second generation bioethanol production: a critical review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 66:631–653Google Scholar
  3. Adrio JL (2017) Oleaginous yeasts: promising platforms for the production of oleochemicals and biofuels. Biotechnol Bioeng 114:1915–1920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alper H, Stephanopoulos G (2009) Engineering for biofuels: exploiting innate microbial capacity or importing biosynthetic potential? Nat Rev Microbiol 7:715–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Apte M, Girme G, Bankar A, Ravikumar A, Zinjarde S (2013a) 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine-derived melanin from Yarrowia lipolytica mediates the synthesis of silver and gold nanostructures. J Nanobiotechnol 11:2Google Scholar
  6. Apte M, Girme G, Nair R, Bankar A, Ravi Kumar A, Zinjarde S (2013b) Melanin mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles by Yarrowia lipolytica. Mater Lett 95:149–152Google Scholar
  7. Bailey RB, Madden KT, Trueheart J (2012) Production of carotenoids in oleaginous yeast and fungi. US Patent 8,288,149 B2Google Scholar
  8. Balch N, Blomquist P, Doten R, Houston P, Lam E, Mcmahon J, Trueheart J, Viarouge C (2019) Production of retinol. World Patent Application 2019/057998 A1Google Scholar
  9. Bankar AV, Kumar AR, Zinjarde SS (2009) Environmental and industrial applications of Yarrowia lipolytica. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84:847–865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrera-Rivera KA, Martínez-Richa A (2017) Yarrowia lipolytica extracellular lipase Lip2 as biocatalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone. Molecules 22:1917–1927PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker J, Rohles CM, Wittmann C (2018) Metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum for bio-based production of chemicals, fuels, materials, and healthcare products. Metab Eng 50:122–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Beopoulos A, Nicaud J-M, Gaillardin C (2011) An overview of lipid metabolism in yeasts and its impact on biotechnological processes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 90:1193–1206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blazeck J, Hill A, Liu L, Knight R, Miller J, Pan A, Otoupal P, Alper HS (2014) Harnessing Yarrowia lipolytica lipogenesis to create a platform for lipid and biofuel production. Nat Commun 5:3131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Boer VM, Broers NJ, Lawrence AG (2014) Extracellular diterpene production. World Patent Application 2014/191580 A1Google Scholar
  15. Brígida AIS, Amaral PFF, Coelho MAZ, Gonçalves LRB (2014) Lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica: production, characterization and application as an industrial biocatalyst. J Mol Catal B Enzym 101:148–158Google Scholar
  16. Cao X, Lv Y-B, Chen J, Imanaka T, Wei L-J, Hua Q (2016) Metabolic engineering of oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for limonene overproduction. Biotechnol Biofuels 9:214PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Cao X, Wei L-J, Lin J-Y, Hua Q (2017) Enhancing linalool production by engineering oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Bioresour Technol 245:1641–1644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cardenas J, Da Silva NA (2014) Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of triacetic acid lactone. Metab Eng 25:194–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cardenas J, Da Silva NA (2016) Engineering cofactor and transport mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced acetyl-CoA and polyketide biosynthesis. Metab Eng 36:80–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carly F, Steels S, Telek S, Vandermies M, Nicaud J-M, Fickers P (2018) Identification and characterization of EYD1, encoding an erythritol dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica and its application to bioconvert erythritol into erythrulose. Bioresour Technol 247:963–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Carreira A, Ferreira LM, Loureiro V (2001a) Production of brown tyrosine pigments by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. J Appl Microbiol 90:372–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carreira A, Ferreira LM, Loureiro V (2001b) Brown pigments produced by Yarrowia lipolytica result from extracellular accumulation of homogentisic acid. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3463–3468PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Castro-Aguirre E, Iñiguez-Franco F, Samsudin H, Fang X, Auras R (2016) Poly(lactic acid)—mass production, processing, industrial applications, and end of life. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 107:333–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Celińska E, Nicaud J-M (2019) Filamentous fungi-like secretory pathway strayed in a yeast system: peculiarities of Yarrowia lipolytica secretory pathway underlying its extraordinary performance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 103:39–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Celińska E, Kubiak P, Białas W, Dziadas M, Grajek W (2013) Yarrowia lipolytica: the novel and promising 2-phenylethanol producer. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 40:389–392PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Celińska E, Olkowicz M, Grajek W (2015) L-Phenylalanine catabolism and 2-phenylethanol synthesis in Yarrowia lipolytica—mapping molecular identities through whole-proteome quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. FEMS Yeast Res 15:fov041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheng B-Q, Wei L-J, Lv Y-B, Chen J, Hua Q (2019) Elevating limonene production in oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica via genetic engineering of limonene biosynthesis pathway and optimization of medium composition. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 24:500–506Google Scholar
  28. Chi P, Wang S, Ge X, Bilal M, Fickers P, Cheng H (2019) Efficient D-threitol production by an engineered strain of Yarrowia lipolytica overexpressing xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Scheffersomyces stipitis. Biochem Eng J 149:107259Google Scholar
  29. Choi S, Song CW, Shin JH, Lee SY (2015) Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives. Metab Eng 28:223–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Christen S, Sauer U (2011) Intracellular characterization of aerobic glucose metabolism in seven yeast species by 13C flux analysis and metabolomics. FEMS Yeast Res 11:263–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Czajka JJ, Nathenson JA, Benites VT, Baidoo EEK, Cheng Q, Wang Y, Tang YJ (2018) Engineering the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce the aroma compound β-ionone. Microb Cell Factories 17:136Google Scholar
  32. da Silva LV, Coelho MAZ, Amaral PFF, Fickers P (2018) A novel osmotic pressure strategy to improve erythritol production by Yarrowia lipolytica from glycerol. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 41:1883–1886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Daley DK, Brown KJ, Badal S (2017) Fungal Metabolites. In: Badal S, Delgoda R (eds) Pharmacognosy. Academic Press, Boston, pp 413–421Google Scholar
  34. Das RK, Pachapur VL, Lonappan L, Naghdi M, Pulicharla R, Maiti S, Cledon M, Dalila LMA, Sarma SJ, Brar SK (2017) Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles: plants, animals and microbial aspects. Nanotechnol Environ Eng 2:18Google Scholar
  35. Du H-X, Xiao W-H, Wang Y, Zhou X, Zhang Y, Liu D, Yuan Y-J (2016) Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica for campesterol overproduction. PLoS One 11:e0146773PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Duquesne S, Bordes F, Fudalej F, Nicaud J-M, Marty A (2012) The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as a generic tool for molecular evolution of enzymes. In: Sandoval G (ed) Lipases and phospholipases. pp 301–312Google Scholar
  37. Dusseaux S, Lajus S, Borsenberger V, Verbeke J, Bordes F, Marty A, Nicaud J-M, Beopoulos A (2017) Recombinant yeast cells producing polylactic acid and uses thereof. World Patent Application 2017/108577 A1Google Scholar
  38. Ekas H, Deaner M, Alper HS (2019) Recent advancements in fungal-derived fuel and chemical production and commercialization. Curr Opin Biotechnol 57:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fakas S (2017) Lipid biosynthesis in yeasts: a comparison of the lipid biosynthetic pathway between the model nonoleaginous yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the model oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Eng Life Sci 17:292–302Google Scholar
  40. Farrell C, Houston P, Laprade L, Balch N, Mayorga M (2014) Acetyl transferases and their use for producing carotenoids. World Patent Application 2014/096992 A1Google Scholar
  41. Fickers P, Marty A, Nicaud J-M (2011) The lipases from Yarrowia lipolytica: genetics, production, regulation, biochemical characterization and biotechnological applications. Biotechnol Adv 29:632–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fukuda R (2013) Metabolism of hydrophobic carbon sources and regulation of it in n-alkane-assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 77:1149–1154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gao S, Tong Y, Zhu L, Ge M, Zhang Y, Chen D, Jiang Y, Yang S (2017) Iterative integration of multiple-copy pathway genes in Yarrowia lipolytica for heterologous β-carotene production. Metab Eng 41:192–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Garlapati VK, Shankar U, Budhiraja A (2016) Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products. Biotechnol Rep 9: 9–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Garone M, Howard J, Fabrikant J (2015) A review of common tanning methods. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 8:43–47PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Goldblum S, Warren CB (2014) Nootkatone as an insecticide and insect repellent. World Patent Application 2014/031790Google Scholar
  47. Gras JL, Pellissier H, Nouguier R (1989) Synthesis of new chiral auxiliaries derived from L-threitol. J Organomet Chem 54:5675–5677Google Scholar
  48. Groenewald M, Boekhout T, Neuvéglise C, Gaillardin C, van Dijck PWM, Wyss M (2014) Yarrowia lipolytica: safety assessment of an oleaginous yeast with a great industrial potential. Crit Rev Microbiol 40:187–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gu Y, Xu X, Wu Y, Niu T, Liu Y, Li J, Du G, Liu L (2018) Advances and prospects of Bacillus subtilis cellular factories: from rational design to industrial applications. Metab Eng 50:109–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Guo X, Sun J, Li D, Lu W (2018) Heterologous biosynthesis of (+)-nootkatone in unconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Biochem Eng J 137:125–131Google Scholar
  51. Haddouche R, Poirier Y, Delessert S, Sabirova J, Pagot Y, Neuvéglise C, Nicaud J-M (2011) Engineering polyhydroxyalkanoate content and monomer composition in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica by modifying the ß-oxidation multifunctional protein. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:1327–1340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hamza F, Vaidya A, Apte M, Kumar AR, Zinjarde S (2017) Selenium nanoparticle-enriched biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica enhances growth and survival of Artemia salina. Enzym Microb Technol 106:48–54Google Scholar
  53. Hernandez-Adame L, Angulo C, Delgado K, Schiavone M, Castex M, Palestino G, Betancourt-Mendiola L, Reyes-Becerril M (2019) Biosynthesis of β-D-glucan-gold nanoparticles, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in mouse splenocytes. Int J Biol Macromol 134:379–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jia D, Xu S, Sun J, Zhang C, Li D, Lu W (2019) Yarrowia lipolytica construction for heterologous synthesis of α-santalene and fermentation optimization. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 103:3511–3520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jiang Y, Loos K (2016) Enzymatic synthesis of biobased polyesters and polyamides. Polymers 8:1–53Google Scholar
  56. Jin C-C, Zhang J-L, Song H, Cao Y-X (2019) Boosting the biosynthesis of betulinic acid and related triterpenoids in Yarrowia lipolytica via multimodular metabolic engineering. Microb Cell Factories 18:77Google Scholar
  57. Kadokawa J-I, Kobayashi S (2010) Polymer synthesis by enzymatic catalysis. Curr Opin Chem Biol 14:145–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kibayashi C (1990) Natural product synthesis utilizing L-threitol derivative as a common chiral synthon. J Synth Org Chem, Japan 48:304–318Google Scholar
  59. Kildegaard KR, Adiego-Pérez B, Doménech Belda D, Khangura JK, Holkenbrink C, Borodina I (2017) Engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for production of astaxanthin. Synth Syst Biotechnol 2:287–294PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Kubiak M, Borkowska M, Białas W, Korpys P, Celińska E (2019) Feeding strategy impacts heterologous protein production in Yarrowia lipolytica fed-batch cultures—insight into the role of osmolarity. Yeast 36:305–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Larroude M, Celinska E, Back A, Thomas S, Nicaud J-M, Ledesma-Amaro R (2018a) A synthetic biology approach to transform Yarrowia lipolytica into a competitive biotechnological producer of β-carotene. Biotechnol Bioeng 115:464–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Larroude M, Rossignol T, Nicaud J-M, Ledesma-Amaro R (2018b) Synthetic biology tools for engineering Yarrowia lipolytica. Biotechnol Adv 36:2150–2164PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Lazar Z, Liu N, Stephanopoulos G (2018) Holistic approaches in lipid production by Yarrowia lipolytica. Trends Biotechnol 36:1157–1170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Le Ouay B, Stellacci F (2015) Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles: a surface science insight. Nano Today 10:339–354Google Scholar
  65. Ledesma-Amaro R, Nicaud J-M (2016a) Metabolic engineering for expanding the substrate range of Yarrowia lipolytica. Trends Biotechnol 34:798–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ledesma-Amaro R, Nicaud J-M (2016b) Yarrowia lipolytica as a biotechnological chassis to produce usual and unusual fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res 61:40–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ledesma-Amaro R, Lazar Z, Rakicka M, Guo Z, Fouchard F, Coq A-MC-L, Nicaud J-M (2016) Metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica to produce chemicals and fuels from xylose. Metab Eng 38:115–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee K-S, El-Sayed MA (2006) Gold and silver nanoparticles in sensing and imaging: sensitivity of plasmon response to size, shape, and metal composition. J Phys Chem B 110:19220–19225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Li H, Alper HS (2016) Enabling xylose utilization in Yarrowia lipolytica for lipid production. Biotechnol J 11:1230–1240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Li H, Alper HS (2019) Producing biochemicals in Yarrowia lipolytica from xylose through a strain mating approach. Biotechnol J In Press.
  71. Li D, Wu Y, Zhang C, Sun J, Zhou Z, Lu W (2019) Production of triterpene ginsenoside compound K in the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. J Agric Food Chem 67:2581–2588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lian J, Mishra S, Zhao H (2018) Recent advances in metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: new tools and their applications. Metab Eng 50:85–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lim E-K, Kim T, Paik S, Haam S, Huh Y-M, Lee K (2015) Nanomaterials for theranostics: recent advances and future challenges. Chem Rev 115:327–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Liu L, Redden H, Alper HS (2013) Frontiers of yeast metabolic engineering: diversifying beyond ethanol and Saccharomyces. Curr Opin Biotechnol 24:1023–1030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu D, Liu H, Qi H, Guo X-J, Jia B, Zhang J-L, Yuan Y-J (2019a) Constructing yeast chimeric pathways to boost lipophilic terpene synthesis. ACS Synth Biol 8:724–733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu H, Marsafari M, Wang F, Deng L, Xu P (2019b) Engineering acetyl-CoA metabolic shortcut for eco-friendly production of polyketides triacetic acid lactone in Yarrowia lipolytica. bioRxiv.
  77. Lv Y, Koffas M, Zhou J, Xu P (2019) Optimizing oleaginous yeast cell factories for flavonoids and hydroxylated flavonoids biosynthesis. bioRxiv.
  78. Markham KA, Alper HS (2018) Synthetic biology expands the industrial potential of Yarrowia lipolytica. Trends Biotechnol 36:1085–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Markham KA, Palmer CM, Chwatko M, Wagner JM, Murray C, Vazquez S, Swaminathan A, Chakravarty I, Lynd NA, Alper HS (2018) Rewiring Yarrowia lipolytica toward triacetic acid lactone for materials generation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115:2096–2101PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Maschio L, Parnell AE, Lees NR, Willis CL, Schaffitzel C, Stach JEM, Race PR (2019) Cloning, expression, and purification of intact polyketide synthase modules. In: Schmidt-Dannert C, Quin MB (eds) . Academic Press, Methods in enzymology, pp 63–82Google Scholar
  81. Michely S, Gaillardin C, Nicaud J-M, Neuvéglise C (2013) Comparative physiology of oleaginous species from the Yarrowia clade. PLoS One 8:e63356PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Mirończuk AM, Furgała J, Rakicka M, Rymowicz W (2014) Enhanced production of erythritol by Yarrowia lipolytica on glycerol in repeated batch cultures. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 41:57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mirończuk AM, Biegalska A, Dobrowolski A (2017) Functional overexpression of genes involved in erythritol synthesis in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Biotechnol Biofuels 10:77PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Nambou K, Jian X, Zhang X, Wei L, Lou J, Madzak C, Hua Q (2015) Flux balance analysis inspired bioprocess upgrading for lycopene production by a metabolically engineered strain of Yarrowia lipolytica. Metabolites 5:794–813PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Niehus X, Crutz-Le Coq A-M, Sandoval G, Nicaud J-M, Ledesma-Amaro R (2018) Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica to enhance lipid production from lignocellulosic materials. Biotechnol Biofuels 11:11PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Ong KL, Li C, Li X, Zhang Y, Xu J, Lin CSK (2019) Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose from sugarcane bagasse into succinic acid by Yarrowia lipolytica. Biochem Eng J 148:108–115Google Scholar
  87. Palmer CM, Alper HS (2019) Expanding the chemical palette of industrial microbes: metabolic engineering for type III PKS-derived polyketides. Biotechnol J 14:e1700463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Papanikolaou S, Kampisopoulou E, Blanchard F, Rondags E, Gardeli C, Koutinas AA, Chevalot I, Aggelis G (2017) Production of secondary metabolites through glycerol fermentation under carbon-excess conditions by the yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Rhodosporidium toruloides: waste glycerol fermentation by yeasts. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 119:1600507Google Scholar
  89. Pimprikar PS, Joshi SS, Kumar AR, Zinjarde SS, Kulkarni SK, (2009) Influence of biomass and gold salt concentration on nanoparticle synthesis by the tropical marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 74:309–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pontrelli S, Chiu T-Y, Lan EI, Chen FY-H, Chang P, Liao JC (2018) Escherichia coli as a host for metabolic engineering. Metab Eng 50:16–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rapi Z, Nemcsok T, Pálvölgyi Á, Keglevich G, Grün A, Bakó P (2017) Synthesis of L-threitol-based crown ethers and their application as enantioselective phase transfer catalyst in Michael additions. Chirality 29:257–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Raza ZA, Abid S, Banat IM (2018) Polyhydroxyalkanoates: characteristics, production, recent developments and applications. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 126:45–56Google Scholar
  93. Reed KB, Alper HS (2018) Expanding beyond canonical metabolism: interfacing alternative elements, synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering. Synth Syst Biotechnol 3:20–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rigouin C, Lajus S, Ocando C, Borsenberger V, Nicaud JM, Marty A, Avérous L, Bordes F (2019) Production and characterization of two medium-chain-length polydroxyalkanoates by engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. Microb Cell Factories 18:99Google Scholar
  95. Robinson JA (1991) Polyketide synthase complexes: their structure and function in antibiotic biosynthesis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 332:107–114Google Scholar
  96. Royer J (2016) Methods for producing abienol. World Patent Application 2016/094178 A1Google Scholar
  97. Royer J, Houston PL (2016) Microbial production of terpenoids. World Patent Application 2016/172282 A1Google Scholar
  98. Rumbold K, van Buijsen HJJ, Gray VM, van Groenestijn JW, Overkamp KM, Slomp RS, van der Werf MJ, Punt PJ (2010) Microbial renewable feedstock utilization: a substrate-oriented approach. Bioeng Bugs 1:359–366PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Rywińska A, Juszczyk P, Wojtatowicz M, Robak M, Lazar Z, Tomaszewska L, Rymowicz W (2013) Glycerol as a promising substrate for Yarrowia lipolytica biotechnological applications. Biomass Bioenergy 48:148–166Google Scholar
  100. Sabirova JS, Haddouche R, Van Bogaert IN, Mulaa F, Verstraete W, Timmis KN, Schmidt-Dannert C, Nicaud JM, Soetaert W (2011) The “LipoYeasts” project: using the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in combination with specific bacterial genes for the bioconversion of lipids, fats and oils into high-value products. Microb Biotechnol 4:47–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Saunders LP, Bowman MJ, Mertens JA, Da Silva NA, Hector RE (2015) Triacetic acid lactone production in industrial Saccharomyces yeast strains. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 42:711–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Schmidt H (2001) Nanoparticles by chemical synthesis, processing to materials and innovative applications. Appl Organomet Chem 15:331–343Google Scholar
  103. Sharpe PL, Ye RW, Zhu QQ (2014) Carotenoid production in a recombinant oleaginous yeast. US Patent 8,846,374 B2Google Scholar
  104. Sheng J, Feng X (2015) Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions. Front Microbiol 6:554PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Shi T-Q, Huang H, Kerkhoven EJ, Ji X-J (2018) Advancing metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica using the CRISPR/Cas system. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:9541–9548. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Spagnuolo M, Shabbir Hussain M, Gambill L, Blenner M (2018) Alternative substrate metabolism in Yarrowia lipolytica. Front Microbiol 9:1077PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Sun J, Zhang C, Nan W, Li D, Ke D, Lu W (2019) Glycerol improves heterologous biosynthesis of betulinic acid in engineered Yarrowia lipolytica. Chem Eng Sci 196:82–90Google Scholar
  108. Tang S-Y, Qian S, Akinterinwa O, Frei CS, Gredell JA, Cirino PC (2013) Screening for enhanced triacetic acid lactone production by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing a designed triacetic acid lactone reporter. J Am Chem Soc 135:10099–10103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tappin MRR, Knopp FM, Cardoso IC, Santos RT, Drummond BS, Siani AC, Bon EPS, Ferrara MA (2017) Synthesis of the prospective anticancer molecule perillic acid from orange essential oil by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. GSC 07:172–184Google Scholar
  110. Tomaszewska L, Rywińska A, Gładkowski W (2012) Production of erythritol and mannitol by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in media containing glycerol. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 39:1333–1343PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Tong Y, Zhou J, Zhang L, Xu P (2019) Engineering oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for violacein production: extraction, quantitative measurement and culture optimization. BioRxiv.
  112. Vandermies M, Fickers P (2019) Bioreactor-scale strategies for the production of recombinant protein in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Microorganisms 7:40–63PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Wagner JM, Alper HS (2016) Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: current tools and future advances. Fungal Genet Biol 89:126–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wakimoto T, Morita H, Abe I (2012) Engineering of plant type III polyketide synthases. In: Hopwood DA (ed) Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, pp 337–358Google Scholar
  115. Wierckx N, Prieto MA, Pomposiello P, de Lorenzo V, O’Connor K, Blank LM (2015) Plastic waste as a novel substrate for industrial biotechnology. Microb Biotechnol 8:900–903PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Withers ST, Keasling JD (2007) Biosynthesis and engineering of isoprenoid small molecules. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73:980–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Wong L, Engel J, Jin E, Holdridge B, Xu P (2017) YaliBricks, a versatile genetic toolkit for streamlined and rapid pathway engineering in Yarrowia lipolytica. Metab Eng Commun 5:68–77PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Wu Y, Xu S, Gao X, Li M, Li D, Lu W (2019) Enhanced protopanaxadiol production from xylose by engineered Yarrowia lipolytica. Microb Cell Factories 18:83Google Scholar
  119. Xie D (2017) Integrating cellular and bioprocess engineering in the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for biodiesel production: a review. Front Bioeng Biotechnol 5:1–17Google Scholar
  120. Yan J, Han B, Gui X, Wang G, Xu L, Yan Y, Madzak C, Pan D, Wang Y, Zha G, Jiao L (2018) Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica to simultaneously produce lipase and single cell protein from agro-industrial wastes for feed. Sci Rep 8:758PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Yang F, Hanna MA, Sun R (2012) Value-added uses for crude glycerol—a byproduct of biodiesel production. Biotechnol Biofuels 5:13PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Yang X, Nambou K, Wei L, Hua Q (2016) Heterologous production of α-farnesene in metabolically engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. Bioresour Technol 216:1040–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ye RW, Sharpe PL, Zhu Q (2012) Bioengineering of oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for lycopene production. In: Barredo J-L (ed) Microbial carotenoids from fungi: methods and protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 153–159Google Scholar
  124. Yu J, Landberg J, Shavarebi F, Bilanchone V, Okerlund A, Wanninayake U, Zhao L, Kraus G, Sandmeyer S (2018) Bioengineering triacetic acid lactone production in Yarrowia lipolytica for pogostone synthesis. Biotechnol Bioeng 115:2383–2388PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhang W, Tang Y (2009) In vitro analysis of type II polyketide synthase. In: Abelson JN, Simon MI (eds) Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 367–393Google Scholar
  126. Zhang Y, Wang Y, Yao M, Liu H, Zhou X, Xiao W, Yuan Y (2017) Improved campesterol production in engineered Yarrowia lipolytica strains. Biotechnol Lett 39:1033–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Zhang X-K, Nie M-Y, Chen J, Wei L-J, Hua Q (2019) Multicopy integrants of crt genes and co-expression of AMP deaminase improve lycopene production in Yarrowia lipolytica. J Biotechnol 289:46–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Zvyagilskaya R, Andreishcheva E, Soares MIM, Khozin I, Berhe A, Persson BL (2001) Isolation and characterization of a novel leaf-inhabiting osmo-, salt-, and alkali-tolerant Yarrowia lipolytica yeast strain. J Basic Microbiol 41:289–303PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McKetta Department of Chemical EngineeringThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Cellular and Molecular BiologyThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations