Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 21–22, pp 9143–9154 | Cite as

Optimization of bacterial nanocellulose fermentation using recycled paper sludge and development of novel composites

  • Francisco A. G. Soares da Silva
  • Marta Fernandes
  • António Pedro Souto
  • Eugénio C. Ferreira
  • Fernando DouradoEmail author
  • Miguel Gama
Environmental biotechnology


In this work, recycled paper sludge (RPS), composed of non-recyclable fibres, was used as a carbon source for bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) production. The biomass was enzymatically hydrolysed with Cellic CTec 2 to produce a sugar syrup with 45.40 g/L glucose, 1.69 g/L cellobiose and 2.89 g/L xylose. This hydrolysate was used for the optimization of BNC fermentation by static culture, using Komagataeibacter xylinus ATCC 700178, through response surface methodology (RSM). After analysis and validation of the model, a maximum BNC yield (5.69 g/L, dry basis) was obtained using 1.50% m/v RPS hydrolysate, 1.0% v/v ethanol and 1.45% m/v yeast extract/peptone (YE/P). Further, the BNC obtained was used to produce composites. A mixture of an amino-PolyDiMethylSiloxane-based softener, polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 400 and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), was incorporated into the BNC membranes through an exhaustion process. The results show that BNC composites with distinct performances can be easily designed by simply varying the polymers percentage contents. This strategy represents a simple approach towards the production of BNC and BNC-based composites.


Bacterial nanocellulose Sludge Composites Soybean Polymers 



The authors thank Europac (Viana do Castelo, Portugal) for the supply of RPS.

Funding information

This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under the scope of the strategic funding of UID/BIO/04469/2019, UID/CTM/00264/2019; the project SkinShip - “Dispositivo de microfluídica inovador baseado em celulose capaz de suportar a modelação 3D de pele”, with reference PTDC/BBB-BIO/1889/2014 (funded by the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) through the Competitiveness and Internationalization Operational Program - COMPETE 2020, the Lisbon Regional Operational Program and by National Funds through the FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology under the project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016595); and Multibiorefinery PAC (SAICTPAC/0040/2015) and BUILD – Bacterial cellulose Leather (NORTE-01-0247-FEDER-003435) and BioTecNorte operation (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000004) funded by the European Regional Development Fund under the scope of Norte2020 - Programa Operacional Regional do Norte.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

253_2019_10124_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (212 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 211 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CEB - Centre of Biological EngineeringUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Centre for Textile Science and TechnologyUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

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