Orthosipon stamineus extract exerts inhibition of bacterial adhesion and chaperon-usher system of uropathogenic Escherichia coli—a transcriptomic study
Specific recognition and bacterial adhesion to host cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the first steps towards infection of epithelial tissue of the human urogenital system. Therefore, targeting of UPEC virulence factors, relevant for adhesion, is a promising approach for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). A fully characterized plant-derived aqueous extract from the leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus (OWE), a plant traditionally used in clinical practice in Europe and Asia for UTI, has been shown to exert strong antiadhesive effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions. For improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms, transcriptome analysis of OWE-treated UPEC strain UTI89 by Illumina sequencing and cross-validation of these data by qPCR indicated significant downregulation of bacterial adhesins (curli, type 1-, F1C-, and P fimbriae) and of the chaperone-mediated protein folding/unfolding and pilus assembly process; in contrast, flagellar and motility-related genes were upregulated. We conclude that OWE transforms the sessile lifestyle of bacteria into a motile one and therefore disables bacterial attachment to the host cell. Additionally, the extract inhibited gene expression of multiple iron-acquisition systems (ent, fep, feo, fhu, chu, sit, ybt). The present study explains the antiadhesive and anti-infective effect of the plant extract by pinpointing specific biochemical and molecular targets.
KeywordsOrthosiphon stamineus Adhesion Transcriptome Uropathogenic E. coli Chaperone–usher Iron uptake
The help of Mr. Michael Holtkamp, Institute of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Münster for determination of iron content in the extracts by TXRF is greatly acknowledged.
The work of CS and UD was supported by the German Research Foundation (SFB1009, TP B05).
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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