Antibiofilm activity of coenzyme Q0 against Salmonella Typhimurium and its effect on adhesion–invasion and survival–replication
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Salmonella Typhimurium, a common Gram-negative foodborne pathogen, threatens public health and hinders the development of the food industry. In this study, we evaluated the antibiofilm activity of coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0) against S. Typhimurium. Besides, the inhibition of the S. Typhimurium’s adhesion to and invasion of Caco-2 cells and its survival and replication in RAW 264.7 cells by CoQ0 were also explored. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of CoQ0 against Salmonella were both 100–400 μg/mL. Salmonella Typhimurium biofilm formation was effectively inhibited by subinhibitory concentrations (SICs) of CoQ0. The CoQ0-affected biofilm morphology was observed with light microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. CoQ0 at SICs reduced the swimming motility and quorum sensing of S. Typhimurium and repressed the transcription of critical virulence-related genes. CoQ0 at SICs also clearly reduced the adhesion of S. Typhimurium to and its invasion of Caco-2 cells and reduced its survival and replication within RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. These findings suggest that CoQ0 has strong antibiofilm activity and can be used as an anti-infectious agent against Salmonella.
KeywordsSalmonella Typhimurium Coenzyme Q0 Antibiofilm Anti-infectious RAW264.7 Subinhibitory concentration
We thank all the partners and laboratory members for their kind help.
This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31801659), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2452017228), and General Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017M623256).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
This paper is our original work. It has not been submitted elsewhere, and it is not under consideration in any other Journal. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. All the authors have seen the manuscript and approved its submission to Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.
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