The administration of l-cysteine and l-arginine inhibits biofilm formation in wild-type biofilm-forming yeast by modulating FLO11 gene expression
Microbial biofilms are undesired in food manufacturing, drinking water distribution systems, and clinical realms. Yeast biofilms are particularly problematic because of the strong capacity of yeast cells to adhere to abiotic surfaces, cells, and tissues. Novel approaches have been developed over recent years to prevent the establishment of microbial biofilms, such as through the use of small molecules with inhibiting and dispersing properties. Here, we studied the inhibitory activity of 11 different amino acids on the biofilm formation ability of three wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the reference strain ∑1278b. Subsequent evaluation of different concentrations of the two most effective amino acids, namely, arginine and cysteine, revealed that they acted in different ways. Arginine prevented biofilm formation by reducing FLO11 gene expression; its addition did not affect cell viability and was even found to enhance cell metabolism (vitality marker) as determined by phenotype microarray (PM) analysis. On the contrary, the addition of cysteine reduced both cell viability and vitality as well as FLO11 expression. Thus, the use of cysteine and arginine as agents against biofilm formation can be diversified depending on the most desired action towards yeast growth.
KeywordsFlor yeast Adhesion to plastic Phenotype microarray Real-time PCR FLO11
The authors would like to thank the “Centro Servizi di Ateneo per la Ricerca (CeSAR)” of the University of Sassari, for the utilization of the Phenotype Microarray© platform.
G.Z. recieved financial support from the Sardinia Regional Government through research grant (Regional Operational Program of the European Social Fund (ROP ESF) 2014-2020—Priority axis 3 “Education and training”; Thematic objective: 10; Investment Priority: 10ii; Specific Objective: 10.5; Action of the Partnership Agreement: 10.5.12-C.U.P. J86C18000270002).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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