Negative regulation of bleomycins biosynthesis by ArsR/SmtB family repressor BlmR in Streptomyces verticillus
Bleomycin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been widely used for various tumor treatments. However, its poor fermentation yield is not satisfactory for industrial production. Here, the ArsR/SmtB family regulator BlmR was characterized as a repressor of bleomycin production. As an autoregulator, BlmR was found to bind to a 12-2-12 imperfect palindrome sequence in its own promoter, and deletion of blmR led to a 34% increase of bleomycin B2 production compared with the wild-type strain. Using reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), blmT, which encoded a putative transporter, was identified as the target gene regulated by BlmR. Therefore, high-production strain was constructed by blmT overexpression in a blmR deletion strain, and the bleomycin B2 titer reached to 80 mg/L, which was 1.9-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Moreover, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed neither metal-binding motifs nor redox switches in BlmR. In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanism, a model of BlmR was constructed by homology modeling and protein-protein docking. The BlmR-DNA complex was generated by protein-DNA docking with the assistance of site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation, which directly revealed several key amino acid residues needed for the maintenance and stabilization of the interface between BlmR and target DNA. The interface information could provide the configuration reference and seek the potential effectors that could interact with BlmR, thereby extending the regulation role of ArsR/SmtB family members on the improvement of antibiotic production.
KeywordsBleomycins ArsR/SmtB family regulator Molecular dynamic simulation Key amino acid residues
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21676189) and the Key Technologies R&D Program of Tianjin (No. 16YFZCSY00780).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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