Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 13, pp 5367–5377 | Cite as

Exogenous addition of alkanoic acids enhanced production of antifungal lipopeptides in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pc3

  • Lianshuai Ding
  • Wenbin GuoEmail author
  • Xinhua ChenEmail author
Applied microbial and cell physiology


The bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pc3, was previously isolated from Antarctic seawater and has been found to show antagonistic activity against the fungus, Rhizoctonia solani ACCC 36316, which causes a severe disease known as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in rapeseed plants. Bacillus lipopeptides had been widely used as biocontrol agents for plant diseases. In this study, we isolated 11 lipopeptide compounds from B. amyloliquefaciens Pc3 culture broth via reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to identify these as iturin A (C14, C15, C16, C17), fengycin B (C14, C15, C16, C17), and surfactin (C14, C15, C16). We further found that the addition of exogenous alkanoic acids, including myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, heptadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and nonadecanoic acid, to the bacterial growth media could promote lipopeptide production and enhance the antifungal activities of crude lipopeptide extracts from B. amyloliquefaciens Pc3. In addition, the transcriptional levels of three lipopeptide synthesis genes, ituD, fenA, and srfA-A, and two fatty acid metabolism–related genes, FabI, which encodes enoyl-ACP reductase, and FadB, which encodes enoyl-CoA hydratase, were found to be upregulated in cells grown with exogenous alkanoic acids. Among the six alkanoic acids tested, those with odd carbon chain lengths had a greater effect on lipopeptide production, antifungal activity, and target gene upregulation than those with even carbon chain lengths. These results provide a practical approach for the efficient production of lipopeptides in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pc3.


Alkanoic acids Lipopeptide Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Rhizoctonia solani ACCC 36316 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Antagonistic activity 



This work was supported by grants from the National Key Basic Research Program of China [grant number: 2015CB755903], the China Ocean Mineral Resources R & D Association (COMRA) program [grant number: DY135-B2-01 and DY135-B2-16], the Yantai Marine Economic Innovation and Development Demonstration City Industrial Chain Collaborative Innovation Project (YHCX-SW-L-201703), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China [grant number: 2019J05019], and the Xiamen Ocean Economic Innovation and Development Demonstration Project [grant number: 16PZP001SF16].

Compliance with ethical standards

This study did not involve any research involving human participants or animals.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

253_2019_9792_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (71 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 71 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of OceanographyMinistry of Natural ResourcesXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Fujian Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic ResourcesXiamenChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Fujian Province, Institute of OceanologyFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina

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