Utilization of brewing and malting by-products as carrier and raw materials in l-(+)-lactic acid production and feed application
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Application of agro-industrial by-products for the production of lactic acid was studied in this paper. Brewer’s spent grain (BSG), malt rootlets (MR), brewer’s yeast (BY), and soy lecithin (SL) were used as raw materials in l-(+)-LA fermentation by free and immobilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The BSG, solid remains after BSG and MR hydrolysis (BSGMRSR), and MR were evaluated as carriers for batch and repeated batch fermentations with immobilized cells. During batch fermentations with immobilized cells, high cell viability (10 to 11 log CFU/g) was achieved on all carriers. In batch fermentation with BSG as a carrier, the highest LA yield of 93.79% and volumetric productivity of 1.15 g/L/h were obtained. Furthermore, very high LA yield (95.46%), volumetric productivity (1.98 g/L/h) and L. rhamnosus viability (11.5 log CFU/g) were achieved in repeated batch fermentations with the cells immobilized on this carrier. The immobilized cells showed high survival rate (94–95%) during exposure to simulated gut condition. Based on the analysis of BSGMRSR, and BY solid remains, and on in vitro evaluation of the probiotic characteristics of immobilized cells, it was observed that they could satisfy the recommendations for high-quality feed preparation.
KeywordsLactic acid fermentation Brewer’s spent grain Brewer’s yeast Malt rootlets Immobilization
The authors would like to thank Novozymes (A/S Bagsvaerd, Denmark) for the free enzymes supply. The authors would like to thank Assistant Professor Dr. Đorđe Veljović for scanning electron micrographs.
This work was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia (TR-31017).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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