Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 8, pp 3581–3595 | Cite as

Reductive soil disinfestation effectively alleviates the replant failure of Sanqi ginseng through allelochemical degradation and pathogen suppression

  • Yunlong Li
  • Baoying Wang
  • Yafeng Chang
  • Yuting Yang
  • Chunzhi Yao
  • Xinqi HuangEmail author
  • Jinbo Zhang
  • Zucong Cai
  • Jun ZhaoEmail author
Environmental biotechnology


Replant failure has threatened the production of Sanqi ginseng (Panax notoginseng) mainly due to the accumulation of soil-borne pathogens and allelochemicals. Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is an effective practice used to eliminate soil-borne pathogens; however, the potential impact of RSD on the degradation of allelochemicals and the growth of replant Sanqi ginseng seedlings remain poorly understood. In this study, RSD was conducted on a Sanqi ginseng monoculture system (SGMS) and a maize-Sanqi ginseng system (MSGS), defined as SGMS_RSD and MSGS_RSD, respectively. The aim was to investigate the impact of RSD on allelochemicals, soil microbiomes, and survival rates of replant seedlings. Both short-term maize planting and RSD treatment significantly degraded the ginsenosides in Sanqi ginseng–cultivated soils, with the degradation rate being higher in the RSD treatment. The population of Fusarium oxysporum and the relative abundance of genus Fusarium were dramatically suppressed by RSD treatment. Furthermore, the RSD treatment, but not maize planting, markedly alleviated the replant failure of Sanqi ginseng, with the seedling survival rate being 52.7–70.7% 6 months after transplanting. Interestingly, RSD followed by short-term maize planting promoted microbial activity restoration, ginsenoside degradation, and ultimately alleviated the replant failure much better than RSD treatment alone (70.7% vs. 52.7%). Collectively, these results indicate that RSD treatment could considerably reduce the obstacles and might also act as a potential agriculture regime for overcoming the replant failure of Sanqi ginseng. Additional practices, such as crop rotation, beneficial microorganism inoculation, etc. may also still be needed to ensure the long-term efficacy of seedling survival.


Panax notoginseng Maize-Sanqi ginseng system Reductive soil disinfestation Fusarium Allelochemicals Biodegradation 



We would like to thank the staffs in Miaoxiang Sanqi Technology Co., Ltd. for managing the field experiment and collecting the growth data of replant seedlings.

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41701277, 41771281), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0200600), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018 M630573), the Startup Funds of Nanjing Normal University (184080H202B136), the Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province, China (KYCX18_1201), the Priority Academic Program Development (PAPD) of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Key Subjects of Jiangsu Province (Ecology).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

253_2019_9676_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (550 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 550 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geography ScienceNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and ApplicationNanjingChina
  3. 3.Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution ControlNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographical Environment (Nanjing Normal University)Ministry of EducationNanjingChina
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution (Jiangsu Province)NanjingChina

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