Biodegradation of polyacrylic and polyester polyurethane coatings by enriched microbial communities
Microbial communities are more effective in degrading natural polymers and xenobiotics than pure cultures. Biodegradation of polyacrylic and polyurethane polymers by bacterial and fungal strains has been addressed, but limited information about their biodegradation by microbial communities exists. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of three enriched microbial communities (BP1h, BP3h, and BP7h), selected from deteriorated foam pieces collected in a landfill, to biodegrade the polyacrylic component of the 2K-PU coating Bayhydrol® A2470 and the polyester polyurethane coating NeoRez™ R-9637. Two communities were further selected to quantify extracellular esterase, protease, and urease activities, to identify their taxonomic composition, and to analyze the ability of their isolated members to grow in those polymers. The growth of the three communities was larger in polyester polyurethane than in polyacrylic and their biodegradative activities affected ester, urethane, ether, aromatic, and aliphatic groups of the compounds present in the coatings. From all the communities growing in polyacrylic or in polyester polyurethane, two and five different types of colonies were isolated, respectively. In polyacrylic, extracellular esterase and protease activities were at their maximum level at 7 days of culture, whereas in polyester polyurethane, protease and urease were greatest at 21 days. All the isolated community members were identified as xenobiotics degraders. The complete communities grew better in media with the polymers than the isolated members. This is one of the few studies reporting biodegradation of synthetic polymers by microbial communities and serves as basis for developing synthetic consortia with enhanced degradative abilities.
KeywordsBiodegradation Microbial communities Polyacrylic Polyester polyurethane Xenobiotics
V.F.C. acknowledges Programa 121, Formación Básica en Investigación, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for her scholarship. We thank Chem. Maricela Gutiérrez Franco for FTIR analysis carried out at Unidad de Servicios de Apoyo a la Investigación y a la Industria (USAII), Facultad de Química, UNAM. We also thank José Galván and Carlos Galván from Pinturas y Solventes de México, S.A. de C.V. for providing the coatings used in this study.
This study was funded by Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica, Dirección General de Asuntos del Personal Académico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México grants IN217114 and IN223317, and Programa de Apoyo a la Investigación y el Posgrado, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, grant 5000-9117.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Asperger O, Naumann A, Kleber HP (1981) Occurrence of cytochrome P-450 in Acinetobacter strains after growth on N-hexadecane. FEMS Microbiol Lett 11(4):309–312. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1981.tb06986.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, Struhl K (1997) Current protocols in molecular biology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Balseiro-Romero M, Gkorezis P, Kidd PS, Van Hamme J, Weyens N, Monterroso C, Vangronsveld J (2017) Characterization and degradation potential of diesel-degrading bacterial strains for application in bioremediation. Int J Phytoremediation 19(10):955–963. https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2017.1337065 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cosgrove L, McGeechan PL, Robson GD, Handley PS (2007) Fungal communities associated with degradation of polyester polyurethane in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(18):5817–5824. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01083-07
- Howard GT (2012) Polyurethane biodegradation. In: Singh SN (ed) Microbial degradation of xenobiotics. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 189–211Google Scholar
- Jong KL, Woo JL, Yong-Ju C, Doo HF, Yong-Woo L, Jinwook C (2010) Variation of bacterial community immobilized in polyethylene glycol carrier during mineralization of xenobiotics analyzed by TGGE technique. Korean J Chem Eng 27(6):1816–1821. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-010-0291-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- L'Haridon S, Chalopin M, Colombo D, Toffin L (2014) Methanococcoides vulcani sp. nov., a marine methylotrophic methanogen that uses betaine, choline and N,N-dimethylethanolamine for methanogenesis, isolated from a mud volcano, and emended description of the genus Methanococcoides. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64(Pt6):1978–1983. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.058289-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lovrien R, Matulis D (1995) Assays for total protein. In: Coligan JE, Dunn BM, Ploegh HL, Speicher DW, Wingfield PT (eds) Current protocols in protein science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, pp 3.4.4–3.4.24Google Scholar
- McCarthy SJ, Meijs GF, Mitchell N, Gunatillake PA, Heath G, Brandwood A, Schindhelm K (1997) In-vivo degradation of polyurethanes: transmission-FTIR microscopic characterization of polyurethanes sectioned by cryomicrotomy. Biomaterials 18(21):1387–1409. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(97)00083-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakajima-Kambe T, Onuma F, Kimpara N, Nakahara T (1995) Isolation and characterization of a bacterium which utilizes polyester polyurethane as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. FEMS Microbiol Lett 129(1):39–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07554.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oceguera-Cervantes A, Carrillo-García A, López N, Bolaños-Nuñez S, Cruz-Gómez MJ, Wacher C, Loza-Tavera H (2007) Characterization of the polyurethanolytic activity of two Alicycliphilus sp. strains able to degrade polyurethane and N-methylpyrrolidone. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(19):6214–6223. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01230-07 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Perruchon C, Pantoleon A, Veroutis D, Gallego-Blanco S, Martin-Laurent F, Liadaki K, Karpouzas DG (2017) Characterization of the biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification capacity of a bacterial consortium able to degrade the fungicide thiabendazole. Biodegradation 28(5-6):383–394. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-017-9803-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rafiemanzelat F, Jafari M, Emtiazi G (2015) Study of biological degradation of new poly(ether-urethane-urea)s containing cyclopeptide moiety and PEG by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from soil. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 177(4):842–860. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-015-1782-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shah Z, Gulzar M, Hasan F, Shah AA (2016) Degradation of polyester polyurethane by an indigenously developed consortium of Pseudomonas and Bacillus species isolated from soil. Polym Degrad Stab 134:349–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2016.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Solís-González CJ, Domínguez-Malfavón L, Vargas-Suárez M, Gaytán I, Cevallos MA, Lozano L, Cruz-Gómez MJ, Loza-Tavera H (2018) Novel metabolic pathway for N-Methylpyrrolidone degradation in Alicycliphilus sp. BQ1 Appl Environ Microbiol 84(1): pii: e02136-17). https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02136-17
- Teng Y, Luo Y, Sun M, Liu Z, Li Z, Christie P (2010) Effect of bioaugmentation by Paracoccus sp. strain HPD-2 on the solid microbial community and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from and aged contaminated soil. Bioresour Technol 101(10):3437–3443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.12.088 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar