Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 6, pp 2469–2481 | Cite as

Agronomic and environmental factors affecting cultivation of the winter mushroom or Enokitake: achievements and prospects

  • Samaneh Attaran Dowom
  • Sharareh RezaeianEmail author
  • Hamid R. PourianfarEmail author


The global interest in production of the winter mushroom or Enokitake (Flammulina filiformis previously known as Flammulina velutipes) is increasing owing to its nutritional and medicinally important bioactive compounds along with a marketable texture and flavor. This review presents the state of knowledge on achievements in solid-state cultivation and submerged cultures of Enokitake and how they are influenced by environmental factors and agronomic characteristics. A wide range of basic lignocellulosic substrates and supplementations have been reviewed in order to formulate an efficient and locally available substrate. Domestication of wild types of Enokitake and its economic and research implications are also discussed. Besides, the influence of environmental and agronomic factors on production and efficacy of the most important biologically active metabolites of Enokitake in both solid-state cultivation and submerged cultures has been discussed. Some of shortcomings of studies reporting cultivation of Enokitake are described and their contribution to future prospects is also discussed in this review.


Cultivation of Enokitake Flammulina filiformis Flammulina velutipes Environmental factors Agronomic characteristics Formulation of substrates Biologically active compounds 



This study was funded by ACECR, Iran (code no. 6003).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.


  1. Attaran Dowom S, Abrishamchi P, Radjabian T, Salami SA (2017) Enhanced phenolic acids production in regenerated shoot cultures of Salvia virgata Jacq. after elicitation with Ag+ ions, methyl jasmonate and yeast extract. Ind Crop Prod 103:81–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldrian P (2006) Fungal laccases—occurrence and properties. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30:215–242. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellettini MB, Fiorda FA, Maieves HA, Teixeira GL, Ávila S, Hornung PS, Júnior AM, Ribani RH (2016) Factors affecting mushroom Pleurotus spp. Saudi J Biol Sci.
  4. Bespalova LA, Makarov OE, Antonyuk LP, Ignatov VV (2002) Lipogenesis in the Basidiomycetes Pleurotus ostreatusand, Flammulina velutipes cultivated on different media. Appl Biochem Microbiol 38:349–354. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen HR, Yu JQ, Yin RY, Huang DF (1995) Research into improved techniques for high yield of Flammulina velutipe and the reuse of waste substrate. J Shanghai Agric Coll 13:106–112Google Scholar
  6. Cogorni PF, Schulz JG, Alves EP, Gern RM, Furlan SA, Wisbeck E (2014) The production of Pleurotus sajor-caju in peach palm leaves (Bactris gasipaes) and evaluation of its use to enrich wheat flour. Food Sci Technol 34:267–274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Melo MR, Paccola-Meirelles LD, de Jesus Faria T, Ishikawa NK (2009) Influence of Flammulina velutipes mycelia culture conditions on antimicrobial metabolite production. Mycoscience 50:78–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dhiman P (2009) Studies on cultural requirements and cultivation technology of some medicinal mushrooms. Doctoral dissertation, Parmar University of Horticulture and ForestryGoogle Scholar
  9. Diamantopoulou P, Papanikolaou S, Komaitis M, Aggelis G, Philippoussis A (2014) Patterns of major metabolites biosynthesis by different mushroom fungi grown on glucose-based submerged cultures. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37:1385–1400. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dong YR, Cheng SJ, Qi GH, Yang ZP, Yin SY, Chen GT (2017) Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides and polysaccharide-iron (III) complex. Carbohydr Polym 161:26–32. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eguchi F, Kalaw SP, Dulay RMR, Miyasawa N, Yoshimoto H, Seyama T, Reyes RG (2015) Nutrient composition and functional activity of different stages in the fruiting body development of Philippine paddy straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea (Bull.: Fr.) Sing. Adv Environ Biol 9:54–65Google Scholar
  12. Elisashvili V, Kachlishvili E, Tsiklauri N, Metreveli E, Khardziani T, Agathos SN (2009) Lignocellulose-degrading enzyme production by white-rot Basidiomycetes isolated from the forests of Georgia. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 25:331–339. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fang QH, Zhong JJ (2002) Effect of initial pH on production of ganoderic acid and polysaccharide by submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum. Process Biochem (Oxford, UK) 37:769–774. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fang H, Zhang W, Niu X, Liu Z, Lu C, Wei H, Yuan S (2014) Stipe wall extension of Flammulina velutipes could be induced by an expansin-like protein from Helix aspersa. Fungal Biol 118:1–11. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferreira ICFR, Vaz JA, Vasconcelos MH, Martins A (2010) Compounds from wild mushrooms with antitumor potential. Anti Cancer Agents Med Chem 10:424–436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fidler G, Butu A, Rodino S, Butu M, Cornea PC (2015a) Antioxidant activity, bioactive compounds and antimicrobial effect of mushrooms extracts. Bull UASVM Anim Sci Biotechnol 72(1).
  17. Fidler G, Rodino S, Butu A, Butu M, Popa G, Cornea CP (2015b) Optimization of submerged culture conditions for Flammulina velutipes on SBD culture medium. J Biotechnol 208:S103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fuller KK, Loros JJ, Dunlap JC (2015) Fungal photobiology: visible light as a signal for stress, space and time. Curr Genet 61:275–288. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gavrilova LP, Lysenkova AV (1988) Trials with Flammulina velutipes Fr. on various substrates. Rastit Resur 24:622–626Google Scholar
  20. Ge ZW, Liu XB, Zhao K, Yang ZL (2015) Species diversity of Flammulina in China: new varieties and a new record. Mycosystema 34:589–603. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gregori A, Svagelj M, Pohleven J (2007) Cultivation techniques and medicinal properties of Pleurotus spp. Food Technol Biotechnol 45:238–249Google Scholar
  22. Grimm D, Wösten HA (2018) Mushroom cultivation in the circular economy. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102:7795–7803. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Harith N, Abdullah N, Sabaratnam V (2014) Cultivation of Flammulina velutipes mushroom using various agro-residues as a fruiting substrate. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 49:181–188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hassan FRH, Ghada MM, Abou Hussein SD (2012a) Evaluation of different heat treatments for mushroom cultivation medium in Egypt. J Appl Sci Res 8:3012–3018Google Scholar
  25. Hassan FRH, Ghada MM, El-Kady AT (2012b) Mycelial biomass production of enoke mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) by submerged culture. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6:603–610Google Scholar
  26. Hiramori C, Koh K, Kurata S, Ueno Y, Gamage S, Huang P, Ohga S (2017) Cultivation of Flammulina velutipes on modified substrate using fermented apple pomace. Adv Microbiol 7:719–728. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoa HT, Wang CL (2015) The effects of temperature and nutritional conditions on mycelium growth of two oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus). Mycobiology 43:14–23. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Hu Q, Yu J, Yang W, Kimatu BM, Fang Y, Ma N, Pei F (2016) Identification of flavonoids from Flammulina velutipes and its neuroprotective effect on pheochromocytoma-12 cells. Food Chem 204:274–282. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hughes KW, McGhee LL, Methven AS, Johnson JE, Petersen RH (1999) Patterns of geographic speciation in the genus Flammulina based on sequences of the ribosomal ITS1-5.8 S-ITS2 area. Mycologia 1:978–986. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Idnurm A, Verma S, Corrochano LM (2010) A glimpse into the basis of vision in the kingdom Mycota. Fungal Genet Biol 47:881–892. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Ishikawa NK, Fukushi Y, Yamaji K, Tahara S, Takahashi K (2001) Antimicrobial cuparene-type sesquiterpenes, enokipodins C and D, from a mycelial culture of Flammulina velutipes. J Nat Prod 64:932–934. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Isikhuemhen OS, Mikiashvilli NA (2009) Lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield by Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on substrate containing anaerobic digester solids. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36:1353–1362. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ji H, Wang Q, Wang H, Chen WJ, Zhu CH, HOU H, Zhang Z (2001) A fundamental research of mushroom cultivation using maize straw. Edible Fungi China 20:10–17Google Scholar
  34. Jurak E, Punt AM, Arts W, Kabel MA, Gruppen H (2015) Fate of carbohydrates and lignin during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw based compost. PLoS One 10:e0138909. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Kalač P (2013) A review of chemical composition and nutritional value of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms. J Sci Food Agric 93:209–218. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Khan F, Chandra R (2017) Effect of physiochemical factors on fruiting body formation in mushroom. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 9:33–36. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim JM, Ra KS, Noh DO, Suh HJ (2002a) Optimization of submerged culture conditions for the production of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor from Flammulina velutipes. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 29:292–295. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim SW, Hwang HJ, Park JP, Cho YJ, Song CH, Yun JW (2002b) Mycelial growth and exo-biopolymer production by submerged culture of various edible mushrooms under different media. Lett Appl Microbiol 34:56–61. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ko HG, Park SH, Kim SH, Park WM (2005) Detection and recovery of hydrolytic enzymes from spent compost of four mushroom species. Folia Microbiol 50:103–106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koutrotsios G, Danezis GP, Georgiou CA, Zervakis GI (2018) Rare earth elements concentration in mushroom cultivation substrates affects the production process and fruit-bodies content of Pleurotus ostreatus and Cyclocybe cylindracea. J Sci Food Agric 98:5418–5427. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kozhemyakina NV, Ananyeva EP, Gurina SV, Galynkin VA (2010) Conditions of cultivation, composition, and biological activity of mycelium of Flammulina velutipes (Fr.) P. Karst. Appl Biochem Microbiol 46:536–539. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kües U, Liu Y (2000) Fruiting body production in basidiomycetes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54:141–152. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kurtzman RH, Martínez-Carrera D (2013) Light, what it is and what it does for mycology. Micología Aplicada International 25:23–33Google Scholar
  44. Lau CC, Abdullah N, Shuib AS, Aminudin N (2012) Proteomic analysis of antihypertensive proteins in edible mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem 60:12341–12348. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee CY, Park JE, Kim BB, Kim SM, Ro HS (2009) Determination of mineral components in the cultivation substrates of edible mushrooms and their uptake into fruiting bodies. Mycobiology 37:109–113. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Leifa F, Pandey A, Soccol CR (2001) Production of Flammulina velutipes on coffee husk and coffee spent-ground. Braz Arch Biol Technol 44:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li MX (1989) Trials with Flammulina velutipes grown on unsterilized maize cob substrate. Zhongguo-Shiyongjun. Edible Fungi China 4:15–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li H, Zhang Z, Li M, Li X, Sun Z (2017) Yield, size, nutritional value, and antioxidant activity of oyster mushrooms grown on perilla stalks. Saudi J Biol Sci 24:347–354. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lin C, Raskin L, Stahl DA (1997) Microbial community structure in gastrointestinal tracts of domestic animals: comparative analyses using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 22:281–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lin YL, Wang TH, Lee MH, Su NW (2008) Biologically active components and nutraceuticals in the Monascus-fermented rice: a review. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77:965–973. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lin Q, Long L, Wu L, Zhang F, Wu S, Zhang W, Sun X (2017) Evaluation of different agricultural wastes for the production of fruiting bodies and bioactive compounds by medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. J Sci Food Agric 97:3476–3480. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lindequist U, Niedermeyer TH, Jülich WD (2005) The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. J Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med 2:285–299. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu JH, Shang XD, Liu JY, Tan Q (2016) Changes in trehalose content, enzyme activity and gene expression related to trehalose metabolism in Flammulina velutipes under heat shock. Microbiol 162:1274–1285. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu XB, Li J, Yang ZL (2018) Genetic diversity and structure of core collection of winter mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) developed by genomic SSR markers. Hereditas 155:3. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Long TJ (1966) Carbon dioxide effect in the mushroom Collybia velutipes. Mycologia 58:319–322. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lu QG, Gui YW, Tong XI (1989) Mycelium growth and mushroom yield of Flammulina velutipes on different culture media. Jiangsu Agric Sci 3:26–27Google Scholar
  57. Luangharn T, Karunarathna SC, Khan S, Xu JC, Mortimer PE, Hyde KD (2017) Antibacterial activity, optimal culture conditions and cultivation of the medicinal Ganoderma australe, new to Thailand. Mycosphere 8:1108–1123. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller FC (1998) Production of mushrooms from wood waste substrates. Forest Prod Biotechnol:197–207Google Scholar
  59. Miyazaki Y, Masuno K, Abe M, Nishizawa H, Matsumoto T, Kunitomo S, Sakata H, Nakamura K, Koyama T, Ito M, Kazama H (2011) Light-stimulative effects on the cultivation of edible mushrooms by using blue led. In: Mushroom biology and mushroom products. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, Arcachon, France. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) 2:58–67Google Scholar
  60. Murthy PS, Manonmani HK (2008) Bioconversion of coffee industry wastes with white rot fungus Pleurotus florida. Res J Environ Sci 2:145–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nakano Y, Fujii H, Kojima M (2010) Identification of blue-light photoresponse genes in oyster mushroom mycelia. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:2160–2165. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ohga S (1999) Evaluation of maturity by use of pH indicators in sawdust-based cultures of Lentinula edodes. J Wood Sci 45:431–434. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Osman M, Ahmed W, Hussein F, El-Sayed H (2014) Endopolysaccharides production and growth of Flammulina velutipes 6 under submerged conditions. Chem Biol Phys Sci 4:3350–3360Google Scholar
  64. Park YJ, Baek JH, Lee S, Kim C, Rhee H, Kim H, Seo JS, Park HR, Yoon DE, Nam JY, Kim HI (2014) Whole genome and global gene expression analyses of the model mushroom Flammulina velutipes reveal a high capacity for lignocellulose degradation. PLoS One 9:e93560. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Pawlak R, Siwulski M (2001) The effect of different cultivation media on the yield of Flammulina velutipes [Curtis: Fries] Singer. Veg Crops Res Bull 54:93–96Google Scholar
  66. Phan CW, Sabaratnam V (2012) Potential uses of spent mushroom substrate and its associated lignocellulosic enzymes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96:863–873. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Poyedinok N, Mykhaylova O, Tugay T, Tugay A, Negriyko A, Dudka I (2015) Effect of light wavelengths and coherence on growth, enzymes activity, and melanin accumulation of liquid-cultured Inonotus obliquus (Ach.: Pers.) Pilát. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 176:333–343. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rangad CO (1981) Studies on some edible fungi. Doctoral dissertation, Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishva VidyalyaGoogle Scholar
  69. Rathee S, Rathee D, Rathee D, Kumar V, Rathee P (2012) Mushrooms as therapeutic agents. Rev Bras Farmacogn 22:459–474. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Redhead SA, Petersen RH, Methven AS (1998) Flammulina (Agaricales): F. stratosa, a new New Zealand species distantly related to the cultivated Enoki mushroom. Can J Bot 76:1589–1595. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Redhead SA, Estrada-Torres A, Petersen RH (2000) Flammulina mexicana, a new Mexican species. Mycologia 1:1009–1018. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rezaeian S, Pourianfar HR (2017) A comparative study on bioconversion of different agro wastes by wild and cultivated strains of Flammulina velutipes. Waste Biomass Valorization 8:2631–2642. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rezaeian S, Pourianfar HR (2018) A comparative study on cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activities of crude extracts and fractions from Iranian wild-growing and cultivated Agaricus spp. J Food Meas Charact 12:2377–2384. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rezaeian S, Saadatm S, Sattari TN, Mirshamsi A (2015) Antioxidant potency of Iranian newly cultivated wild mushrooms of Agaricus and Pleurotus species. Biomed Res 26:534–542Google Scholar
  75. Ripková SO, Adamčík S, Kučera VI (2008) Flammulina ononidis—a new species for Slovakia. Czech Mycol 60:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ripková S, Hughes K, Adamčík S, Kučera V, Adamčíková K (2010) The delimitation of Flammulina fennae. Mycol Prog 9:469–484. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rodriguez Estrada AE, Royse DJ (2007) Yield, size and bacterial blotch resistance of Pleurotus eryngii grown on cottonseed hulls/oak sawdust supplemented with manganese, copper and whole ground soybean. Bioresour Technol 98:1898–1906. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Royse DJ (2014) A global perspective on the high five: Agaricus, Pleurotus, Lentinula, Auricularia & Flammulina. In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products (ICMBMP8) 1:1–6Google Scholar
  79. Royse DJ, Baars J, Tan Q (2017) Current overview of mushroom production in the world. In: Zied DC, Pardo-Giminez A (eds) Edible and medicinal mushrooms: technology and applications. John Wiley & Sons LtD, Hoboken, pp 5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rugolo M, Levin L, Lechner BE (2016) Flammulina velutipes: an option for “alperujo” use. Rev Iberoam Micol 33:242–247. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sakamoto Y (2010) Protein expression during Flammulina velutipes fruiting body formation. Mycoscience 51:163–169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sakamoto Y (2018) Influences of environmental factors on fruiting body induction, development and maturation in mushroom-forming fungi. Fungal Biol Rev 32:236–248. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sakamoto Y, Akira AN, Tamai Y, Miura K, Yajima T (2002) Protein expressions during fruit body induction of Flammulina velutipes under reduced temperature. Mycol Res 106:222–227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sakamoto Y, Tamai Y, Yajima T (2004) Influence of light on the morphological changes that take place during the development of the Flammulina velutipes fruit body. Mycoscience 45:333–339. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sakamoto Y, Ando A, Tamai Y, Yajima T (2007) Pileus differentiation and pileus-specific protein expression in Flammulina velutipes. Fungal Genet Biol 44:14–24. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. San Antonio JP, Hanners PK (1983) Spawn disk inoculation of logs to produce mushrooms. Hortscience 18:708–710Google Scholar
  87. Sangkaew M, Koh K (2017) The cultivation of Flammulina velutipes by using sunflower residues as mushroom substrate. J Adv Agric Technol 4:140–144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shah SR, Ukaegbu CI, Hamid HA, Alara OR (2018) Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the stems of Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus tessellatus (white and brown var.) extracted with different solvents. J Food Meas Charact 12:1947–1961. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sharma VP, Sharma SR, Kumar S (2005) Nutritional requirements for mycelia growth and cultivation of Flammulina velutipes. Mushroom Res 14:13–18Google Scholar
  90. Sharma VP, Kumar S, Tewari RP (2009) Flammulina velutipes, the culinary medicinal winter mushroom. Yugantar Prakashan Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, p 53Google Scholar
  91. Shi M, Yang Y, Guan D, Zhang Y, Zhang Z (2012) Bioactivity of the crude polysaccharides from fermented soybean curd residue by Flammulina velutipes. Carbohydr Polym 89:1268–1276. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Shin KS, Yu KW, Lee HK, Lee H, Cho WD, Suh HJ (2007) Production of anti-complementary exopolysaccharides from submerged culture of Flammulina velutipes. Food Technol Biotechnol 45:319–326Google Scholar
  93. Shittu OB, Alofe FV, Onawunmi GO, Ogundaini AO, Tiwalade TA (2005) Mycelial growth and antibacterial metabolite production by wild mushrooms. Afr J Biomed Res 8:157–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith HA (2014) Production of antimicrobials and antioxidants from filamentous fungi. Doctoral dissertation, National University of Ireland, MaynoothGoogle Scholar
  95. Soltanian H, Rezaeian S, Shakeri A, Janpoor J, Pourianfar HR (2016) Antibacterial activity of crude extracts and fractions from Iranian wild-grown and cultivated Agaricus spp. Biomed Res 27:56–59Google Scholar
  96. Sulistiany H, Sudirman LI, Dharmaputra OS (2016) Production of fruiting body and antioxidant activity of wild Pleurotus. HAYATI J Bio Sci 23:191–195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tajalli F, Malekzadeh K, Soltanian H, Janpoor J, Rezaeian S, Pourianfar HR (2015) Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom. Braz J Microbiol 46:769–776. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Tan WC, Kuppusamy UR, Phan CW, Tan YS, Raman J, Anuar AM, Sabaratnam V (2015) Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki revisited: domestication study and antioxidant properties of its basidiocarps and mycelia. Sci Rep 5:12515. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Tang XN, Bian GQ, Zhang M (2001) Studies on cultivating Flammulina velutipes with Paspalum notatum. Edible Fungi China 20:10–11Google Scholar
  100. Tang C, Hoo PCX, Tan LTH, Pusparajah P, Khan TM, Lee LH, Goh BH, Chan KG (2016) Golden needle mushroom: a culinary medicine with evidenced-based biological activities and health promoting properties. Fron Pharmacol 7:474. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Thielke C (1989) Cultivation of edible fungi on coffee grounds. Mushroom Sci 12:337–343Google Scholar
  102. Tsai SY, Huang EW, Lin CP (2017) Compositional differences of the winter culinary-medicinal mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes), under three types of light conditions. Int J Med Mushrooms 19:267–276. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tuheng W, Weifang B, Junfang L, Liqiong G (2017) Effects of elicitors on fruiting body yield and selected chemical components in Flammulina velutipes (in Chinese). Acta Edulis Fungi 4Google Scholar
  104. Vieira GRT, Liebl M, Tavares LBB, Paulert R, Smânia Júnior A (2008) Submerged culture conditions for the production of mycelial biomass and antimicrobial metabolites by Polyporus tricholoma Mont. Braz J Microbiol 39:561–568. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang S-X, Liu Y, Geng XL, Meng LL (2007) The comparative studies on different formulae of white Flammulina velutipes strain. North Hortic 228-229Google Scholar
  106. Wang Y, Bao L, Yang X, Li L, Li S, Gao H, Yao XS, Wen H, Liu HW (2012) Bioactive sesquiterpenoids from the solid culture of the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes growing on cooked rice. Food Chem 132:1346–1353. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Wang J, Wang B, Zhang D, Wu Y (2016) Selenium uptake, tolerance and reduction in Flammulina velutipes supplied with selenite. Peer J 4:1993. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wang PM, Liu XB, Dai YC, Horak E, Steffen K, Yang ZL (2018a) Phylogeny and species delimitation of Flammulina: taxonomic status of winter mushroom in East Asia and a new European species identified using an integrated approach. Mycol Prog 2018:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wang WH, Zhang JS, Feng T, Deng J, Lin CC, Fan H, Yu WJ, Bao HY, Jia W (2018b) Structural elucidation of a polysaccharide from Flammulina velutipes and its immunomodulation activities on mouse B lymphocytes. Sci Rep 8:3120. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Xie C, Gong W, Yan L, Zhu Z, Hu Z, Peng Y (2017) Biodegradation of ramie stalk by Flammulina velutipes: mushroom production and substrate utilization. AMB Express 7:171. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Yang D, Liang J, Wang Y, Sun F, Tao H, Xu Q, Zhang L, Zhang Z, Ho CT, Wan X (2016) Tea waste: an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. J Sci Food Agric 96:680–684. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Yeh MY, Ko WC, Lin LY (2014) Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of enoki mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes). Biomed Res Int 2014:1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Younis A, Stewart J, Wu FS, El Shikh H, Hassan F, Elaasser M (2014) Effectiveness of different solvents extracts from edible mushrooms in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells. Cancer Biol 4:1–15Google Scholar
  114. Zhao C, Zhao K, Liu X, Huang YF, Liu B (2013) In vitro antioxidant and antitumor activities of polysaccharides extracted from the mycelia of liquid-cultured Flammulina velutipes. Food Sci Technol Res 19:661–667. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Industrial Fungi Biotechnology Research Department, Research Institute for Industrial BiotechnologyAcademic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR) - Khorasan Razavi BranchMashhadIran

Personalised recommendations