Advertisement

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 103, Issue 6, pp 2483–2492 | Cite as

Immobilization of cellulase in the non-natural ionic liquid environments to enhance cellulase activity and functional stability

  • Min Zhou
  • Xin Ju
  • Liangzhi LiEmail author
  • Lishi Yan
  • Xinqi Xu
  • Jiajia Chen
Mini-Review

Abstract

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been applied as an environmentally friendly solvent in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for more than a decade. The ILs involved pretreatment processes for cellulases mediated saccharification lead to both the breakdown of cellulose crystallinity and the decrease of lignin content, thereby improving the solubility of cellulose and the accessibility of cellulase. However, most cellulases are partially or completely inactivated in the presence of even low amount of ILs. Immobilized cellulases are found to perform improved stability and higher apparent activity in practical application compared with its free counterparts. Enzyme immobilization therefore has become a promising way to relieve the deactivation of cellulase in ILs. Various immobilization carriers and methods have been developed and achieved satisfactory results in improving the stability, activity, and recycling of cellulases in IL pretreatment systems. This review aims to provide detailed introduction of immobilization methods and carrier materials of cellulase, including natural polysaccharides, synthetic polymers, inorganic materials, magnetic materials, and newly developed composite materials, and illustrate key methodologies in improving the performance of cellulase in the presence of ILs. Especially, novel materials and concepts from the recently representative researches are focused and discussed comprehensively, and future trends in immobilization of cellulases in non-natural ILs environments are speculated in the end.

Keywords

Lignocellulose Cellulase Immobilization Ionic liquid 

Notes

Funding information

The authors are grateful for the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No 21676173, Grant No 21376156). This study was also supported by Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Education department. Moreover, a project also funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education institutions.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. An YX, Zong MH, Hu SQ, Li N (2017) Effect of residual lignins present in cholinium ionic liquid-pretreated rice straw on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Chem Eng Sci 161:48–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2016.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andriani D, Sunwoo C, Ryu HW, Prasetya B, Park DH (2012) Immobilization of cellulase from newly isolated strain Bacillus subtilis TD6 using calcium alginate as a support material. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 35:29–33.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-011-0630-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anuradha JS, Valli NC (2012) Immobilization of Aspergillus nidulans SU04 cellulase on modified activated carbon. J Therm Anal Calorim 109:193–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-011-1758-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bayramoglu G, Senkal BF, Arica MY (2013) Preparation of clay–poly (glycidyl methacrylate) composite support for immobilization of cellulase. Appl Clay Sci 85:88–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2013.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bilgin R, Yalcin MS, Yildirim D (2016) Optimization of covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports for cellulose hydrolysis, in buffer and ionic liquids/buffer media. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 44:1276–1284.  https://doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2015.1024842 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai C, Qiu X, Zeng M, Lin M, Lin X, Lou H, Zhan X, Pang Y, Huang J, Xie L (2017) Using polyvinylpyrrolidone to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses by reducing the cellulase non-productive adsorption on lignin. Bioresour Technol 227:74–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.12.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cao L, Rantwijk F, Sheldon RA (2000) Cross-linked enzyme aggregates: a simple and effective method for the immobilization of penicillin acylase. Org Lett 2:1361–1364.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ol005593x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang HY, Jang J, Wu KCW (2011) Cellulase immobilized mesoporous silica nanocatalysts for efficient cellulose-to-glucose conversion. Green Chem 13:2844–2850.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C1GC15563F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen HZ, Liu ZH (2015) Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products. Biotechnol J 10:866–885.  https://doi.org/10.1002/biot.201400705 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen B, Pernodet N, Rafailovich MH, Bakhtina A, Gross RA (2008) Protein immobilization on epoxy-activated thin polymer films: effect of surface wettability and enzyme loading. Langmuir 24:13457–13464.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la8019952 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen B, Qiu J, Mo H, Yu Y, Ito K, Sakai E, Feng H (2017) Synthesis of mesoporous silica with different pore sizes for cellulase immobilization: pure physical adsorption. New J Chem 41:9338–9345.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C7NJ00441A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cui J, Ren S, Sun B, Jia S (2018) Optimization protocols and improved strategies for metal-organic frameworks for immobilizing enzymes: current development and future challenges. Coord Chem Rev 370:22–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dinçer A, Telefoncu A (2007) Improving the stability of cellulase by immobilization on modified polyvinyl alcohol coated chitosan beads. J Mol Catal B Enzym 45:10–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2006.10.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eng T, Demling P, Herbert RA, Chen Y, Benites V, Martin J, Lipzen A, Baidoo EEK, Blank LM, Petzold CJ, Mukhopadhyay A (2018) Restoration of biofuel production levels and increased tolerance under ionic liquid stress is enabled by a mutation in the essential Escherichia coli gene cydC. Microb Cell Factories 17:159.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-018-1006-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fei JJ, Li Q, Feng YY, Ji GS, Gu XD, Li TC, Liu Y (2013) In situ saccharification of cellulose in mild ionic liquid using sodium alginate immobilized cellulase. Appl Mech Mater 361–363:339–342.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.361-363.339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feng D, Li L, Yang F, Tan W, Zhao G, Zou H, Xian M, Zhang Y (2011) Separation of ionic liquid [Mmim][DMP] and glucose from enzymatic hydrolysis mixture of cellulose using alumina column chromatography. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:399–405.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-011-3263-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Foresti ML, Ferreira ML (2007) Chitosan-immobilized lipases for the catalysis of fatty acid esterifications. Enzym Microb Technol 40:769–777.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2006.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garcia A, Oh S, Engler CR (1989) Cellulase immobilization on Fe3O4 and characterization. Biotechnol Bioeng 33:321–326.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.260330311 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gozan M, Martini E, Park DH, Prasetya B (2011) Cellulase immobilization using reversible soluble-insoluble polymer. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2:190–197Google Scholar
  20. Grewal J, Ahmad R, Khare SK (2017) Development of cellulase-nanoconjugates with enhanced ionic liquid and thermal stability for in situ lignocellulose saccharification. Bioresour Technol 242:236–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.04.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamid SBA, Islam MM, Das R (2015) Cellulase biocatalysis: key influencing factors and mode of action. Cellulose 22:2157–2182.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-015-0672-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Han J, Rong J, Wang Y, Liu Q, Tang X, Li C, Ni L (2018) Immobilization of cellulase on thermo-sensitive magnetic microspheres: improved stability and reproducibility. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 41:1051–1060.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-018-1934-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hartono SB, Qiao SZ, Liu J, Jack K, Ladewig BP, Hao Z, Lu GQM (2010) Functionalized mesoporous silica with very large pores for cellulase immobilization. J Phys Chem C 114:8353–8362.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp102368s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Himmel ME, Ding SY, Johnson DK, Adney WS, Nimlos MR, Brady JW, Foust TD (2007) Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science (80- ) 315:804–807.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1137016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hosseini SH, Hosseini SA, Zohreh N, Yaghoubi M, Pourjavadi A (2018) Covalent immobilization of cellulase using magnetic poly(ionic liquid) support: improvement of the enzyme activity and stability. J Agric Food Chem 66:789–798.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03922 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hou C, Zhu H, Li Y, Li Y, Wang X, Zhu W, Zhou R (2015) Facile synthesis of oxidic PEG-modified magnetic polydopamine nanospheres for Candida rugosa lipase immobilization. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:1249–1259.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-014-5990-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hu DX, Ju X, Li LZ, Hu CY, Yan LS, Wu TY, Fu JL, Qing M (2016a) Improved in situ saccharification of cellulose pretreated by dimethyl sulfoxide/ionic liquid using cellulase from a newly isolated Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1. Bioresour Technol 8-14(688):201Google Scholar
  28. Hu DX, Xiao L, Li LZ, Zhong C, Ju X, Yan LS, Wu TX, Qing M, Hu ZY (2016b) Effects of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([Emim]DEP) on cellulase produced by Paenibacillus sp. LLZ1. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4(9):4922–4926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huang J, Zhao R, Wang H, Zhao W, Ding L (2010) Immobilization of glucose oxidase on Fe3O4/SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles. Biotechnol Lett 32:817–821.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529-010-0217-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Huang PJ, Chang KL, Hsieh JF, Chen ST (2015) Catalysis of rice straw hydrolysis by the combination of immobilized cellulase from Aspergillus niger on β -Cyclodextrin-Fe3O4 nanoparticles and ionic liquid. Biomed Res Int 2015:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/409103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hung TC, Fu CC, Su CH, Chen JY, Wu WT, Lin YS (2011) Immobilization of cellulase onto electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes and its application to the reducing sugar production from microalgae. Enzym Microb Technol 49:30–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2011.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ikeda Y, Parashar A, Bressler DC (2014) Highly retained enzymatic activities of two different cellulases immobilized on non-porous and porous silica particles. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 19:621–628.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-014-0191-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Imai K, Shiomi T, Uchida K, Miya M (1986) Immobilization of enzyme into poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane. Biotechnol Bioeng 28:1721–1726.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.260281116 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jamwal S, Chauhan GS, Ahn JH, Reddy NS (2016) Cellulase stabilization by crosslinking with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and evaluation of its activity including in a water–ionic liquid mixture. RSC Adv 6:25485–25491.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RA19571C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jiang DS, Long SY, Huang J, Xiao HY, Zhou JY (2005) Immobilization of Pycnoporus sanguineus laccase on magnetic chitosan microspheres. Biochem Eng J 25:15–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2005.03.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jiang Y, Guo C, Xia H, Mahmood I, Liu C, Liu H (2009) Magnetic nanoparticles supported ionic liquids for lipase immobilization: enzyme activity in catalyzing esterification. J Mol Catal B Enzym 58:103–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2008.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jiang J, Zhao J, He C, Cui B, Xiong J, Jiang H, Ao J, Xiang G (2017) Recyclable magnetic carboxymethyl chitosan/calcium alginate—cellulase bioconjugates for corn stalk hydrolysis. Carbohydr Polym 166:358–364.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.03.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Jochems P, Satyawali Y, Diels L, Dejonghe W (2011) Enzyme immobilization on/in polymeric membranes: status, challenges and perspectives in biocatalytic membrane reactors (BMRs). Green Chem 13:1609–1623.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C1GC15178A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klotzbach T, Watt M, Ansari Y, Minteer SD (2006) Effects of hydrophobic modification of chitosan and Nafion on transport properties, ion-exchange capacities, and enzyme immobilization. J Membr Sci 282:276–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2006.05.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li M, Pu Y, Ragauskas AJ (2016) Current understanding of the correlation of lignin structure with biomass recalcitrance. Front Chem 4:45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liang W, Cao X (2012) Preparation of a pH-sensitive polyacrylate amphiphilic copolymer and its application in cellulase immobilization. Bioresour Technol 116:140–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.03.082 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Lozano P, Bernal B, Bernal JM, Pucheault M, Vaultier M (2011) Stabilizing immobilized cellulase by ionic liquids for saccharification of cellulose solutions in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Green Chem 13:1406–1410.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C1GC15294G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lozano P, Bernal B, Jara AG, Belleville MP (2014) Enzymatic membrane reactor for full saccharification of ionic liquid-pretreated microcrystalline cellulose. Bioresour Technol 151:159–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.067 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lu L, Jieshan Y, Shitao Y, Shiwei L, Fusheng L, Congxia X (2018) Stability and activity of cellulase modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) at different amino groups in the ionic liquid [C2OHmim][OAc]. Chem Eng Commun 205:986–990.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2018.1428191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Luckarift HR, Spain JC, Naik RR, Stone MO (2004) Enzyme immobilization in a biomimetic silica support. Nat Biotechnol 22:211–213.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt931 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Malmiri HJ, Jahanian MAG, Berenjian A (2012) Potential applications of chitosan nanoparticles as novel support in enzyme immobilization. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 8:203–219.  https://doi.org/10.3844/ajbbsp.2012.203.219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mao X, Guo G, Huang J, Du Z, Huang Z, Ma L, Li P, Gu L (2005) A novel method to prepare chitosan powder and its application in cellulase immobilization. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81:189–195.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1378 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mateo C, Grazu V, Guisan JM (2013) Immobilization of enzymes on monofunctional and heterofunctional epoxy-activated supports BT—immobilization of enzymes and cells: third edition. In: Guisan JM (ed) . Humana Press, Totowa, pp 43–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Orrego CE, Salgado N, Valencia JS, Giraldo GI, Giraldo OH, Cardona CA (2010) Novel chitosan membranes as support for lipases immobilization: characterization aspects. Carbohydr Polym 79:9–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.06.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Papa G, Feldman T, Sale KL, Adani F, Singh S, Simmons BA (2017) Parametric study for the optimization of ionic liquid pretreatment of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 241:627–637.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.05.167 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Poorakbar E, Shafiee A, Saboury AA, Rad BL, Khoshnevisan K, Ma’mani L, Derakhshankhah H, Ganjali MR, Hosseini M (2018) Synthesis of magnetic gold mesoporous silica nanoparticles core shell for cellulase enzyme immobilization: improvement of enzymatic activity and thermal stability. Process Biochem 71:92–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2018.05.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Qi H, Duan H, Wang X, Meng X, Yin X, Ma L (2015) Preparation of magnetic porous terpolymer and its application in cellulase immobilization. Polym Eng Sci 55:1039–1045.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.23973 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Qi B, Luo J, Wan Y (2018) Immobilization of cellulase on a core-shell structured metal-organicframework composites: better inhibitors tolerance and easier recycling. Bioresour Technol 268:577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rigual V, Santos TM, Domínguez JC, Alonso MV, Oliet M, Rodriguez F (2018) Evaluation of hardwood and softwood fractionation using autohydrolysis and ionic liquid microwave pretreatment. Biomass Bioenergy 117:190–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.07.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rinaudo M (2006) Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. Prog Polym Sci 31:603–632.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rodrigues D, Camilo FF, Caseli L (2014) Cellulase and alcohol dehydrogenase immobilized in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films and their molecular-level effects upon contact with cellulose and ethanol. Langmuir 30:1855–1863.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la500232w CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Roth HC, Schwaminger SP, Peng F, Berensmeier S (2016) Immobilization of cellulase on magnetic nanocarriers. ChemistryOpen 5:183–187.  https://doi.org/10.1002/open.201600028 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Shojaei F, Homaei A, Taherizadeh MR, Kamrani E (2017) Characterization of biosynthesized chitosan nanoparticles from Penaeus vannamei for the immobilization of P. vannamei protease: an eco-friendly nanobiocatalyst. Int J Food Prop 20:1413–1423.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1345935 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shukla SP, Modi K, Ghosh PK, Devi S (2003) Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase by entrapment in natural polysaccharide. J Appl Polym Sci 91:2063–2071.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.13269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Slowing II, Trewyn BG, Giri S, Lin VSY (2007) Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for drug delivery and biosensing applications. Adv Funct Mater 17:1225–1236.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200601191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Su Z, Yang X, Li L, Shao H, Yu S (2012) Cellulase immobilization properties and their catalytic effect on cellulose hydrolysis in ionic liquid. Afr J Microbiol Res 6:64–70.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR11.922 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Su Z, Yu Y, Liang C, Li L, Yu S (2013) Properties of chitosan-immobilized cellulase in ionic liquid. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 60:231–235.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bab.1057 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Sun YX, Shen BB, Han HY, Lu Y, Zhang BX, Gao YF, Hu BZ, Hu XM (2018) Screening of potential IL-tolerant cellulases and their efficient saccharification of IL-pretreated lignocelluloses. RSC Adv 8:30957–30965.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RA05729J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Swatloski RP, Spear SK, Holbrey JD, Rogers RD (2002) Dissolution of cellose with ionic liquids. J Am Chem Soc 124:4974–4975.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja025790m CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Tadesse H, Luque R (2011) Advances on biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids: an overview. Energy Environ Sci 4:3913–3929.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C0EE00667J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Takimoto A, Shiomi T, Ino K, Tsunoda T, Kawai A, Mizukami F, Sakaguchi K (2008) Encapsulation of cellulase with mesoporous silica (SBA-15). Microporous Mesoporous Mater 116:601–606.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2008.05.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tan L, Tan Z, Feng H, Qiu J (2018) Cellulose as a template to fabricate a cellulase-immobilized composite with high bioactivity and reusability. New J Chem 42:1665–1672.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C7NJ03271D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Teixeira RSS, da Silva AS, Kim HW, Ishikawa K, Endo T, Lee SH, Bon EP (2013) Use of cellobiohydrolase-free cellulase blends for the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and sugarcane bagasse pretreated by either ball milling or ionic liquid [Emim][Ac]. Bioresour Technol 149:551–555.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.09.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Vieira MF, Vieira AMS, Zanin GM, Tardioli PW, Mateo C, Guisán JM (2011) β-Glucosidase immobilized and stabilized on agarose matrix functionalized with distinct reactive groups. J Mol Catal B Enzym 69:47–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2010.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wang J, Wang L, Yu H, Zain A, Chen Y, Chen Q, Zhou W, Zhang H, Chen X (2016) Recent progress on synthesis, property and application of modified chitosan: an overview. Int J Biol Macromol 88:333–344.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.04.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Wu L, Yuan X, Sheng J (2005) Immobilization of cellulase in nanofibrous PVA membranes by electrospinning. J Membr Sci 250:167–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2004.10.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Xiang X, Suo H, Xu C, Hu Y (2018) Covalent immobilization of lipase onto chitosan-mesoporous silica hybrid nanomaterials by carboxyl functionalized ionic liquids as the coupling agent. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 165:262–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.02.033 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Xu J, Liu X, He J, Hu L, Dai B, Wu B (2015) Enzymatic in situ saccharification of rice straw in aqueous-ionic liquid media using encapsulated Trichoderma aureoviride cellulase. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 90:57–63.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Xu J, Sheng Z, Wang X, Liu X, Xia J, Xiong P, He B (2016) Enhancement in ionic liquid tolerance of cellulase immobilized on PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets: application in saccharification of lignocellulose. Bioresour Technol 200:1060–1064.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.070 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Yang WY, Thirumavalavan M, Malini M, Annadurai G, Lee JF (2014) Development of silica gel-supported modified macroporous chitosan membranes for enzyme immobilization and their characterization analyses. J Membr Biol 247:549–559.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00232-014-9671-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Yang C, Mo H, Zang L, Chen J, Wang Z, Qiu J (2016) Surface functionalized natural inorganic nanorod for highly efficient cellulase immobilization. RSC Adv 6:76855–76860.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA15659B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zang L, Qiu J, Wu X, Zhang W, Sakai E, Wei Y (2014) Preparation of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles as support for cellulase immobilization. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:3448–3454.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie404072s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zdarta J, Jędrzak A, Klapiszewski Ł, Jesionowski T (2017) Immobilization of cellulase on a functional inorganic-organic hybrid support: stability and kinetic study. Catalysts 7:374.  https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7120374 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhang XZ, Zhuo RX (2001) Dynamic properties of temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel cross-linked through siloxane linkage. Langmuir 17:12–16.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la000170p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhang WJ, Qiu JH, Feng HX, Wu XL, Zang LM, Yi W, Eiichi S (2014) Preparation and characterization of functionalized magnetic silica nanospheres with the immobilized cellulase. Appl Mech Mater 543–547:3892–3895.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.543-547.3892 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhang Z, Harrison MD, Rackemann DW, Doherty WOS, O’Hara IM (2016) Organosolv pretreatment of plant biomass for enhanced enzymatic saccharification. Green Chem 18:360–381.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5GC02034D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhang L, dos Santos ACF, Ximenes E, Ladisch M (2017a) Proteins at heterogeneous (lignocellulose) interfaces. Curr Opin Chem Eng 18:45–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2017.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhang Y, Jin P, Liu M, Pan J, Yan Y, Chen Y, Xiong Q (2017b) A novel route for green conversion of cellulose to HMF by cascading enzymatic and chemical reactions. AICHE J 63:4920–4932.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.15841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zhu X, Peng C, Chen H, Chen Q, Zhao ZK, Zheng Q, Xie H (2018) Opportunities of ionic liquids for lignin utilization from biorefinery. ChemistrySelect 3:7945–7962.  https://doi.org/10.1002/slct.201801393 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry, Biology, and Material EngineeringSuzhou University of Science and TechnologySuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Fujian Key Laboratory of Marine Enzyme EngineeringFuzhou UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations