Bacteriophage-host arm race: an update on the mechanism of phage resistance in bacteria and revenge of the phage with the perspective for phage therapy

  • Aa Haeruman Azam
  • Yasunori TanjiEmail author


Due to a constant attack by phage, bacteria in the environment have evolved diverse mechanisms to defend themselves. Several reviews on phage resistance mechanisms have been published elsewhere. Thanks to the advancement of molecular techniques, several new phage resistance mechanisms were recently identified. For the practical phage therapy, the emergence of phage-resistant bacteria could be an obstacle. However, unlike antibiotic, phages could evolve a mechanism to counter-adapt against phage-resistant bacteria. In this review, we summarized the most recent studies of the phage-bacteria arm race with the perspective of future applications of phages as antimicrobial agents.


Phage therapy Phage-bacteria arm race Coevolution Phage resistance mechanism 



The authors would like to thank all members of Tanji laboratory for their useful discussion during weekly seminar.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animal performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Life Science and TechnologyTokyo Institute of TechnologyYokohamaJapan

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