Probiotic effects of marine Debaryomyces hansenii CBS 8339 on innate immune and antioxidant parameters in newborn goats
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Several marine Debaryomyces hansenii strains have shown probiotic effects on aquatic animals, and D. hansenii-derived β-glucans have recently provided immunostimulant effects on goat leukocytes. This study assessed the probiotic effects of live yeast D. hansenii CBS 8339 on newborn goats administered orally, and subsequently challenged in vitro with Escherichia coli. D. hansenii CBS 8339 demonstrated the capacity to survive gastrointestinal tract conditions (bile salts and acid pH tolerance) and adhere to goat intestine. Twelve Saanen × Nubian crossbred newborn goats (2.9 ± 0.47 kg) were fed with a controlled diet or D. hansenii (0.7 g/kg body weight per day)–supplemented milk for 30 days. Blood samples of newborn goats were taken at days 15 and 30, and peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated for bacterial challenge, and immunological and antioxidant analyses. Despite cell viability was higher in leukocytes of goat kids fed with the yeast supplement, protection against E. coli challenge was not significantly affected. On the other hand, at day 15, oral administration of D. hansenii enhanced respiratory burst and catalase activity and increased superoxide dismutase activity after challenge. In contrast, at day 30, administration of the yeast supplement increased peroxidase activity and enhanced nitric oxide production and catalase activity after challenge. Finally, the yeast-supplemented diet upregulated the expression of the receptor genes TLR (2, 4, 6), modulator genes Raf.1, Syk, and Myd88, transcription factor gene AP-1, and cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α only at day 15 in leukocytes from unchallenged goat kids. These results demonstrated that a short time (15 days) of orally administering the probiotic D. hansenii CBS 8339 to newborn goats stimulated innate immune and antioxidant parameters and the expression of immune-related gene signaling pathways.
KeywordsNewborn goats Marine yeast Probiotics Immune innate response Immune-associated pathways
Authors are grateful to Isabel Toledo from UABCS and Perla Ginera for help provided in goat breeding during the bioassay. We also thank Juan Manuel Melero for facilitating goat blood samples, Patricia Hinojosa from CIBNOR Comparative Physiology Laboratory for technical support, Carmen Rodriguez and Eulalia Meza for technical support on histology analysis and Diana Fischer for English editorial services.
This research was financially supported by CONACYT (INFR-2014-01/225924 and PDCPN2014-01/248033).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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