Reverse metabolic engineering in lager yeast: impact of the NADH/NAD+ ratio on acetaldehyde production during the brewing process
- 1 Downloads
Acetaldehyde is synthesized by yeast during the main fermentation period of beer production, which causes an unpleasant off-flavor. Therefore, there has been extensive effort toward reducing acetaldehyde to obtain a beer product with better flavor and anti-staling ability. In this study, we discovered that acetaldehyde production in beer brewing is closely related with the intracellular NADH equivalent regulated by the citric acid cycle. However, there was no significant relationship between acetaldehyde production and amino acid metabolism. A reverse engineering strategy to increase the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio reduced the final acetaldehyde production level, and vice versa. This work offers new insight into acetaldehyde metabolism and further provides efficient strategies for reducing acetaldehyde production by the regulating the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio through cofactor engineering.
KeywordsBrewer’s yeast Acetaldehyde NADH/NAD+ Reverse metabolic engineering
This study was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (No. 31571942, No. 31771963, No. 31601558), Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (No. 111-2-06), Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (KYCX18_1790), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (JUSRP51306A, JUSRP51402A, JUDCF13008).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Albers E, Larsson C, Liden G, Niklasson C, Gustafsson L (1996) Influence of the nitrogen source on Saccharomyces cerevisiae anaerobic growth and product formation. Appl Environ Microbiol 62(9):3187–3195Google Scholar
- Blieck L, Toye G, Dumortier F, Verstrepen KJ, Delvaux FR, Thevelein JM, Van Dijck P (2007) Isolation and characterization of brewer’s yeast variants with improved fermentation performance under high-gravity conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(3):815–824. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.02109-06 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Camarasa C, Grivet JP, Dequin S (2003) Investigation by 13C-NMR and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) deletion mutant analysis of pathways for succinate formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during anaerobic fermentation. Microbiology 149(Pt 9):2669–2678. https://doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.26007-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hubmann G, Foulquie-Moreno MR, Nevoigt E, Duitama J, Meurens N, Pais TM, Mathe L, Saerens S, Nguyen HT, Swinnen S, Verstrepen KJ, Concilio L, de Troostembergh JC, Thevelein JM (2013) Quantitative trait analysis of yeast biodiversity yields novel gene tools for metabolic engineering. Metab Eng 17:68–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymben.2013.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kosugi S, Kiyoshi K, Oba T, Kusumoto K, Kadokura T, Nakazato A, Nakayama S (2014) Isolation of a high malic and low acetic acid-producing sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain screened from respiratory inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-resistant strains. J Biosci Bioeng 117(1):39–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2013.06.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li E, Mira de Orduña (2011) Evaluation of the acetaldehyde production and degradation potential of 26 enological Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains in a resting cell model system. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38(9):1391–1398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-010-0924-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Remize F, Andrieu E, Dequin S (2000) Engineering of the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of the cytosolic Mg(2+) and mitochondrial K(+) acetaldehyde dehydrogenases Ald6p and Ald4p in acetate formation during alcoholic fermentation. Appl Environ Microbiol 66(8):3151–3159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yoshida S, Imoto J, Minato T, Oouchi R, Sugihara M, Imai T, Ishiguro T, Mizutani S, Tomita M, Soga T, Yoshimoto H (2008) Development of bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces strains that produce high SO2 levels, using integrated metabolome and transcriptome analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(9):2787–2796. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.01781-07 CrossRefGoogle Scholar