Gongronella sp. w5 elevates Coprinopsis cinerea laccase production by carbon source syntrophism and secondary metabolite induction
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When sucrose was used as the carbon source, the Basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea showed poor growth and low laccase activity in pure culture, but greatly enhanced the level of laccase activity (>1800 U/L) during coculture with the Mucoromycete Gongronella sp. w5. As a result, the mechanism of laccase overproduction in coculture was investigated by starting from clarifying the function of sucrose. Results demonstrated that Gongronella sp. w5 in the coculture system hydrolyzed sucrose to glucose and fructose by an intracellular invertase. Fructose rather than glucose was supplied by Gongronella sp. w5 as the readily available carbon source for C. cinerea, and contributed to an alteration of its growth behavior and a basal laccase secretion of 110.6 ± 3.3 U/L. On the other hand, separating Gongronella sp. w5 of C. cinerea by transfer into dialysis tubes yielded the same level of laccase activity as without separation, indicating that enhanced laccase production probably resulted from the metabolites in the fermentation broth. Further investigation showed that the ethyl acetate–extracted metabolites generated by Gongronella sp. w5 induced C. cinerea laccase production. One of the laccase-inducing compounds namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) was purified and identified from the extract. When using HBA as the inducer and fructose as the carbon source in monoculture, C. cinerea observed similar high laccase activity to that in coculture, and zymograms revealed the same expression of laccase Lcc9 as the main and Lcc1 and Lcc5 as the minor enzymes. Overall, our experiments verified that Gongronella sp. w5 elevates Coprinopsis cinerea laccase production by carbon source syntrophism and secondary metabolite induction.
KeywordsCarbon source syntrophism Coculture Coprinopsis cinerea Laccase Secondary metabolites Gongronella sp. w5
The authors are grateful to Prof. Patricia J. Pukkila (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA) for providing the strain C. cinerea strain Okayama 7 (#130), and to Jingjing Wang, Nannan Zhao, and Prof. Xiaotang Wang for suggestions.
This work was supported by grants from the Natural Sciences Foundation of China (31870098, 31300044), the Chinese Scholarship Council (201706505019) for a research stay of ZF in Goettingen, and the National Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province (1308085QC46).
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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