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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 102, Issue 19, pp 8447–8464 | Cite as

Autophagy gene overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae perturbs subcellular organellar function and accumulates ROS to accelerate cell death with relevance to sparkling wine production

  • Richard Preiss
  • Caroline Tyrawa
  • George van der Merwe
Applied genetics and molecular biotechnology

Abstract

Traditional sparkling wines are produced by the refermentation of a base wine with yeast in the bottle followed by a critical period of aging. During the often lengthy aging process, yeast undergoes cell death and autolysis to release cellular compounds that over time ultimately contribute to the flavor and appearance of the product. While accelerating yeast autolysis for sparkling wine production has been the focus of several studies, employing overexpressed native yeast alleles for this purpose remains poorly explored. Here, we show that the overexpression of native yeast genes, specifically selected autophagic genes, results in accelerated cell death in nitrogen starvation and base wine refermentation. We show ATG3 or ATG4 overexpression has pleiotropic intracellular ramifications including reduced turnover of autophagic cargo, vacuolar fragmentation, abnormal accumulation of lipids, and accelerated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), all of which precede accelerated cell death. Our findings suggest that the increased expression of autophagy-related genes, such as ATG3 and ATG4, in industrial wine yeast can serve as a suitable marker or breeding strategy to accelerate the cell death and autolysis of wine yeast during sparkling wine production.

Keywords

Sparkling wine ATG gene overexpression Accelerated autolysis Lipid droplets Autophagy ROS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Charlie Boone for the gift of the MoBY-ORF 2.0 plasmid library, Gary Chan for the initial screen, Athena De Marco for initial experiments, and Niagara College Teaching Winery (Niagara-on-the-Lake, Canada) for supplying the base wine used in this study.

Funding information

This research was funded by NSERC Discovery (#264792-400922) and OMAFRA-University of Guelph partnership (UofG2013-1639) grants.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

This study contains no experiments with human participants or animals.

Supplementary material

253_2018_9304_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (568 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 567 kb)

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Biological ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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