Abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria in a mainstream municipal wastewater treatment plant
- 427 Downloads
Among the factors that obstruct the application of anammox-based technology for nitrogen removal from mainstream municipal wastewater is the water’s high organic loads. We hypothesized that some anammox species can adapt and grow in mainstream wastewater in which a minimal temperature of 13–15 °C is maintained. Using the AMX368F and AMX820R PCR-primers, anammox bacteria were detected in influent wastewater (COD/N ratio > 13) and in the anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic chambers of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant, reaching 107 copies/g VSS of the16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, anammox activity was demonstrated by 15N-isotopic tracing. The DNA sequences of clones randomly selected from a clone library were mainly clustered with Candidatus Brocadia flugida in addition to Ca. Brocadia sinica, Ca. Jettenia asiatica, and Ca. Anammoxoglobus propionicus. However, Ca. Brocadia was the only genus detected by high-throughput next-generation sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The nitrite producers, ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria, were both detected in the influent wastewater and the other chambers, while the nitrite consumers, Nitrospira nitrite oxidizers and the nirS-type denitrifiers, dominated all chambers. The results indicate the occurrence and potential activity of anammox bacteria in mainstream wastewater under certain conditions (proper temperature). The dominance of Brocadia flugida and Anammoxoglobus propionicus suggests a role for volatile fatty acids in selecting the anammox community in wastewater.
KeywordsAnammox abundance Anammox diversity Mainstream wastewater
The authors thank Prof. Zeev Ronen for his help in performing the N-isotopes experiments.
This research was funded by a grant from the Ministry of Science, Technology and Space of the State of Israel (grant no. 3-11871).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- APHA (1989) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 17th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Henze M, Comeau Y (2008) Wastewater characterization. In: Biological wastewater treatment: principles modelling and design. Edited by M. Henze, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, G.A. Ekama and D. Brdjanovic. ISBN: 9781843391883, pp. 33-52. IWA Publishing, London, UKGoogle Scholar
- Hoekstra M, de Weerd FA, Kleerebezem R, van Loosdrecht MCM (2018) Deterioration of the anammox process at decreasing temperatures and long SRTs. Environ Technol, 39, 658, 668Google Scholar
- Jetten MSM., Logemann S, Muyzer G, Robertson LA, deVries S, van Loosdrecht MCM, Kuenen JG (1997a) Novel principles in the microbial conversion of nitrogen compounds. Anton Leeuw 71: 75–93Google Scholar
- Kartal B, Rattray J, van Niftrik LA, van de Vossenberg J, Schmid MC, Webb RI, Schouten S, Fuerstc JA, Damste JS, Jetten MSM, Strous M (2007) Candidatus “Anammoxoglobus propionicus” a new propionate-oxidizing species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 30:39–49Google Scholar
- Kartal B, van Niftrik LA, Rattray J, van deVossenberg J, Schmid MC, Damsté JS, Jetten MSM, Strous M (2008) Candidatus ‘Brocadia fulgida’: an auto fluorescent anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 63: 46–55Google Scholar
- Kuenen JG (2008) Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application. Nature Rev/Microbiology 6:320–326Google Scholar
- Lotti T, Kleerebezem R, van Erp Taalman Kip C, Hendrickx TLG, Kruit J, Hoekstra M, van Loosdrecht MCM (2014) Anammox growth on pretreated municipal wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 48: 7874–7880Google Scholar
- Nnaji CC (2013) A review of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Desalin Water Treat 52(22–24)Google Scholar
- Pons MN, Spanjers H, Baetens D, Nowak O, Gillot S, Nouwen J, Schuttinga N (2004) Wastewater characteristics in Europe—a survey. Eur Water Manag Online, Official Publication of the European Water Association (EWA), pp. 1–10, www.ewa-online.eu/tl_files/_media/content/documents_pdf
- Strous M, Kuenen JG, Jetten M (1999b) Key physiological parameters of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:3248–3250Google Scholar
- Tchobanoglous G, Burton FL, Stensel HD, (2003) Wastewater engineering: treatment and reuse, 4th ed. Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. McGraw-Hill, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
- van Dongen U, Jetten MSM, van Loosdrecht MCM (2001) The SHARON-Anammox process for treatment of ammonium rich wastewater. Water SciTechnol 44:153–160Google Scholar
- van Hulle SWH, Vandeweyer HJP, Meesschaert BD, Vanrolleghem PA, Dejans P, Dumoulin A (2010) Engineering aspects and practical application of autotrophic nitrogen removal from nitrogen rich streams. Chem Eng J 162:1–20Google Scholar
- Van Lier JB, Mahmoud N, and Zeeman G (2008) Anaerobic wastewater treatment. In: Biological wastewater treatment: principles modelling and design. Edited by: M. Henze, MCM van loosdrecht, GA Ekama and D Brdjanovic. IWA Publishing, London, UKGoogle Scholar
- Wang S, Hong Y, Wu J, Xu XR, Bin L, Pan Y, Guan F, Wen J (2015a) Comparative analysis of two 16S rRNA gene-based PCR primer sets provides insight into the diversity distribution patterns of anammox bacteria in different environments. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:8163–8176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar