Grey mould disease of strawberry in northern Germany: causal agents, fungicide resistance and management strategies
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Grey mould, the most important disease of strawberry worldwide, is caused by Botrytis cinerea and a few additional Botrytis spp. Fungicide resistance is a growing problem and has become a limiting factor in strawberry production. In northern Germany, an annual survey of Botrytis isolates from commercial strawberry fields in 2010 to 2017 has revealed high (> 20%) frequencies of resistance to quinone-outside inhibitors, fenhexamid, boscalid, fludioxonil and cyprodinil, as well as lower (< 10%) shares of resistance to the recently released fluopyram. Iprodione and benzimidazoles have not been used in northern Germany for several years or decades, respectively, yet resistance to them was still detected. These observations are largely representative of the situation in many other strawberry-producing regions worldwide. The spread of strains with multiple resistance to several or even all currently used single-site fungicides is of particular concern and is probably promoted by their excessive use. Contaminated nursery material is a newly detected potential vehicle for the spread of strains with (multiple) fungicide resistance. Several complementary non-chemical measures are available to secure strawberry production in the face of weakening fungicide efficacies, and these are briefly discussed.
KeywordsBotrytis cinerea Botrytis fragariae Botrytis pseudocinerea Multiple fungicide resistance Nursery stock Sanitation
Many of our results and conclusions reported here were generated in the course of an innovation support programme (FKZ 2814705711) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by either of the authors.
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