Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using A. hydrophila in up-flow column: optimization of process variables


In the present study, continuous up-flow fixed-bed column study was carried out using immobilized dead biomass of Aeromonas hydrophila for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Different polymeric matrices were used to immobilized biomass and polysulfone-immobilized biomass has shown to give maximum removal. The sorption capacity of immobilized biomass for the removal of Cr(VI) evaluating the breakthrough curves obtained at different flow rate and bed height. A maximum of 78.58% Cr(VI) removal was obtained at bed height of 19 cm and flow rate of 2 mL/min. Bed depth service time model provides a good description of experimental results with high correlation coefficient (>0.996). An attempt has been made to investigate the individual as well as cumulative effect of the process variables and to optimize the process conditions for the maximum removal of chromium from water by two-level two-factor full-factorial central composite design with the help of Minitab ® version 15 statistical software. The predicted results are having a good agreement (R 2 = 98.19%) with the result obtained. Sorption–desorption studies revealed that polysulfone-immobilized biomass could be reused up to 11 cycles and bed was completely exhausted after 28 cycles.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. Ahalya N, Ramachandra TV, Kanamadi RD (2003) Biosorption of heavy metals. J Chem Environ 7:71–79

  2. Ahluwalia SS, Goyal D (2007) Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresour Technol 98:2243–2257

  3. Aksu Z, Gönen F (2004) Biosorption of phenol by immobilized activated sludge in a continuous packed bed: prediction of breakthrough curves. Process Biochem 39:599–613

  4. Anjana K, Kaushik A, Kiran B, Nisha R (2007) Biosorption of Cr(VI) by immobilized biomass of two indigenous strains of cyanobacteria isolated from metal contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater 148:383–386

  5. Bai RS, Abraham TE (2003) Studies on chromium (VI) adsorption–desorption using immobilized fungal biomass. Bioresour Technol 87:17–26

  6. Bishnoi NR, Bajaj M, Sharma N, Gupta A (2004) Adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated rice husk carbon and activated alumina. Bioresour Technol 91:305–307

  7. Christian Taty-Costodes V, Fauduet H, Porte C, Ho YS (2005) Removal of lead (II) ions from synthetic and real effluents using immobilized Pinus sylvestris sawdust: adsorption on a fixed-bed column. J Hazard Mater 123:135–144

  8. Demirbas A (2008) Heavy metal adsorption onto agro-based waste materials: a review. J Hazard Mater 157:220–229

  9. Demirbas E, Kobya M, Senturk E, Ozkan T (2004) Adsorption kinetics for the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions on the activated carbons prepared from agricultural wastes. Water SA 30:533–540

  10. Environmental Protection Agency (1990) Environmental Pollution Control Alternatives, EPA/625/5-90/025, EPA/625/4-89/023, Cincinnati

  11. Hasan SH, Singh KK, Prakash O, Talat M, Ho YS (2008) Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using agricultural waste ‘maize bran’. J Hazard Mater 152:356–365

  12. Hutchins RA (1973) New simplified design of activated carbon systems. Am J Chem 80:133–138

  13. Kiran B, Kaushik A (2008) Cyanobacterial biosorption of Cr(VI): application of two parameter and Bohart Adams models for batch and column studies. Chem Eng J 144:391–399

  14. Kiran B, Kaushik A, Kaushik CP (2007) Response surface methodological approach for optimizing removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution using immobilized cyanobacterium. Chem Eng J 126:147–153

  15. Kumar PA, Chakraborty S (2008) Fixed-bed column study for hexavalent chromium removal and recovery by short-chain polyaniline synthesized on jute fiber. J Hazard Mater 162:1086–1098

  16. Minitab (2006) MINITAB® Release 15 Statistical Software for Windows. Minitab, State College, PA

  17. Mohan D, Pittman CU Jr (2006) Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water. J Hazard Mater 137(B):762–811

  18. Pokhrel D, Viraraghvan T (2006) Arsenic removal from aqueous solution by iron oxide-coated fungal biomass: a factorial design analysis. Water Air Soil Pollut 173:195–208

  19. Preetha B, Viruthagiri T (2007) Batch and continuous biosorption of chromium(VI) by Rhizopus arrhizus. Sep Purif Technol 57:126–133

  20. Ranjan D, Srivastava P, Talat M, Hasan SH (2008) Biosorption of Cr(VI) from water using biomass of Aeromonas hydrophila: central composite design for optimization of process variables. Appl Biochem Biotechnol (in press)

  21. Ravikumar K, Krishnan S, Ramalingam S, Balu K (2007) Optimization of process variables by the application of response surface methodology for dye removal using a novel adsorbent. Dyes Pigm 72:66–74

  22. Singh KK, Talat M, Hasan SH (2006) Removal of lead from aqueous solutions by agricultural waste maize bran. Bioresour Technol 97:2124–2130

  23. Sud D, Mahajan G, Kaur MP (2008) Agricultural waste material as potential adsorbent for sequestering heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions—a review. Bioresour Technol 99:6017–6027

  24. Suksabye P, Thiravetyan P, Nakbanpote W (2008) Column study of chromium(VI) adsorption from electroplating industry by coconut coir pith. J Hazard Mater 160:56–62

  25. Tan IAW, Ahmad AL, Hameed BH (2008) Optimization of preparation conditions for activated carbons from coconut husk using response surface methodology. Chem Eng J 137:462–470

  26. Vieira MGA, Oisiovici RM, Gimenes ML, Silva MGC (2008) Biosorption of chromium(VI) using a Sargassum sp. packed-bed column. Bioresour Technol 99:3094–3099

  27. Viera RHSF, Volesky B (2000) Biosorption: a solution to pollution? Int Microbiol 3:17–24

  28. Vijayaraghavan K, Yun YS (2008a) Bacterial biosorbents and biosorption. Biotechnol Adv 26:266–291

  29. Vijayaraghavan K, Yun YS (2008b) Polysulfone-immobilized Corynebacterium glutamicum: a biosorbent for Reactive black 5 from aqueous solution in an up-flow packed column. Chem Eng J 145:44–49

  30. Vijayaraghavan K, Jegan J, Palanivelu K, Velan M (2004) Removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using crab shell particles in a packed bed up-flow column. J Hazard Mater 113:223–230

  31. Vijayaraghavan K, Jegan J, Palanivelu K, Velan M (2005) Batch and column removal of copper from aqueous solution using a brown marine alga Turbinaria ornata. Chem Eng J 106:177–184

  32. Volesky B (2001) Detoxification of metal-bearing effluents: biosorption for the next century. Hydrometallurgy 59:203–216

  33. Volesky B, Holan ZR (1995) Biosorption of heavy metals. Biotechnol Prog 11:235–250

Download references


The authors are thankful to All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) (F. No. 8023/RID/BOR/RPS-10/2005-06) for the laboratory facilities and financial assistance.

Author information

Correspondence to S. H. Hasan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hasan, S.H., Srivastava, P., Ranjan, D. et al. Biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using A. hydrophila in up-flow column: optimization of process variables. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 83, 567–577 (2009).

Download citation


  • Aeromonas hydrophila
  • Cr(VI)
  • Sorption
  • Bed depth service time
  • Desorption
  • Central composite design