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Bioindicator production with Bacillus atrophaeus’ thermal-resistant spores cultivated by solid-state fermentation

Abstract

Bacillus atrophaeus’ spores are used in the preparation of bioindicators to monitor the dry heat, ethylene oxide, and plasma sterilization processes and in tests to assess sterilizing products. Earlier production methods involved culture in chemically defined medium to support sporulation with the disadvantage of requiring an extended period of time (14 days) besides high cost of substrates. The effect of cultivation conditions by solid-state fermentation (SSF) was investigated aiming at improving the cost–productivity relation. Initial SSF parameters such as the type of substrate were tested. Process optimization was carried out using factorial experimental designs and response surface methodology in which the influence of different variables—particle size, moisture content, incubation time, pH, inoculum size, calcium sources, and medium composition—was studied. The results have suggested that soybean molasses and sugarcane bagasse are potential substrate and support, respectively, contributing to a 5-day reduction in incubation time. Variables which presented significant effects and optimum values were mean particle size (1.0 mm), moisture content (93%), initial substrate pH (8.0), and water as a solution base. The high-yield spore production was about 3 logs higher than the control and no significant difference in dry heat resistance was observed.

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Acknowledgements

This research was financially supported by the Secretaria de Estado da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior—Fundo Paraná.

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Correspondence to Carlos Ricardo Soccol.

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Sella, S.R.B.R., Guizelini, B.P., Vandenberghe, L.P.S. et al. Bioindicator production with Bacillus atrophaeus’ thermal-resistant spores cultivated by solid-state fermentation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82, 1019–1026 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1768-8

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Keywords

  • Bacillus atrophaeus
  • Bioindicator
  • Solid-state fermentation
  • Sugar cane bagasse
  • Response surface methodology
  • Optimization