Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Molecular and biochemical characterization of a distinct tyrosinase involved in melanin production from Aeromonas media

  • 500 Accesses

  • 19 Citations

Abstract

A new tyrosinase was isolated from Aeromonas media strain WS and purified to homogeneity. The purified tyrosinase, termed TyrA, had a molecular mass of 58 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.90. It exhibited optimal monophenol and diphenol oxidase activities under basic conditions (pH > 8.0). TyrA had a relatively higher affinity to diphenol substrate l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) than many other tyrosinases. EDTA or glutathione notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of TyrA, whereas Triton X-100 and SDS activated them. The full-length TyrA gene was cloned, and it encodes a 518 amino acid protein with little similarities to other reported tyrosinases. However, the purified recombinant TyrA expressed in Escherichia coli demonstrated tyrosinase activity. These results suggest that TyrA is the first reported distinct tyrosinase involved in melanin production in the genus Aeromonas.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Abbott S, Cheung W, Janda JM (2003) The genus Aeromonas: biochemical characteristics, atypical reactions, and phenotypic identification schemes. J Clin Microbiol 41:2348–2357

  2. Castro-Sowinski S, Martinez-Drets G, Okon Y (2002) Laccase activity in melanin-producing strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti. FEMS Microbiol Lett 209:119–125

  3. Christian J, Andrzej M (2000) Laccase activity tests and laccase inhibitors. J Biotechnol 78:193–199

  4. Claus H, Decker H (2006) Bacterial tyrosinases. Syst Appl Microbiol 29:3–14

  5. Decker H, Schweikardt T, Nillius D, Salzbrum U, Jaenicke E, Tuczek F (2007) Similar enzyme activation and catalysis in hemocyanins and tyrosinases. Gene 398:183–191

  6. Gibson LF, George AM (1998) Melanin and novel melanin precursors from Aeromonas media. FEMS Microbiol Lett 169:261–268

  7. Halaouli S, Asther Mi, Kruus K, Guo L, Hamdi M, Sigoillot JC, Asther M, Lomascolo A (2005) Characterization of a new tyrosinase from Pycnoporus species with high potential for food technological application. J Appl Microbiol 98:332–343

  8. Halaouli S, Asther M, Sigoillot JC, Hamdi M, Lomascolo A (2006) Fungal tyrosinases: new prospects in molecular characteristics, bioengineering and biotechnological applications. J Appl Microbiol 100:219–232

  9. Hernandez-Romero D, Solano F, Sanchez-Amat A (2005) Polyphenol oxidase activity expression in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:6808–6815

  10. Jones PM, George AM (2003) The ABC transporter structure and mechanism: perspectives on recent research. Cell Mol Life Sci 61:682–699

  11. Kim YJ, Uyama H (2005) Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the future. Cell Mol Life Sci 62:1707–1723

  12. Kong KH, Hong MP, Choi SS, Kim YT, Cho SH (2000) Purification and characterization of a highly stable tyrosinase from Thermomicrobium roseum. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 31:113–118

  13. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685

  14. Leu WM, Chen LY, Liaw LL, Lee YH (1992) Secretion of the Streptomyces tyrosinase is mediated through its trans-activator protein, melC1. J Biol Chem 267:20108–20113

  15. Lopez-Serrano D, Sanchez-Amat A, Solano F (2002) Cloning and molecular characterization of a SDS-activated tyrosinase from Marinomonas mediterranea. Pigment Cell Res 15:104–111

  16. Lopez-Serrano D, Solano F, Sanchez-Amat A (2007) Involvement of a novel copper chaperone in tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in Marinomonas mediterranea. Microbiology 153:2241–2249

  17. Matoba Y, Kumagai T, Yamamoto A, Yoshitsu H, Sugiyama M (2006) Crystallographic evidence that the dinuclear copper center of tyrosinase is flexible during catalysis. J Biol Chem 281:981–990

  18. Olson ER, Dunyak DS, Jurss LM, Poorman RA (1991) Identification and characterization of dppA, and Escherichia coli gene encoding a periplasmic dipeptide transport protein. J Bacteriol 173:234–244

  19. Pinero S, Rivera J, Romero D, Cevallos MA, Martinez A, Bolivar F, Gosset G (2007) Tyrosinase from Rhizobium etli is involved in nodulation efficiency and symbiosis-associated stress resistance. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 13:35–44

  20. Plonka PM, Grabacka M (2006) Melanin synthesis in microorganisms—biotechnological and medical aspects. Acta Biochim Pol 53:429–443

  21. Ruan L, He W, He J, Sun M, Yu Z (2005) Cloning and expression of mel gene from Bacillus thuringiensis in Escherichia coli. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 87:283–288

  22. Schweikardt T, Olivares C, Solano F, Jaenicke E, Garcia-Borron JC, Decker H (2007) A three-dimensional model of mammalian tyrosinase active site accounting for loss of function mutations. Pigment Cell Res 20:394–401

  23. Selinheimo E, Saloheimo M, Ahola E, Westerholm-Parvinen A, Kalkkinen N, Buchert J, Kruus K (2006) Production and characterization of a secreted, C-terminally processed tyrosinase from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. FEBS J 273:4322–4335

  24. Tsai TY, Lee YHW (1998) Roles of copper ligands in activation and secretion of Streptomyces tyrosinase. J Biol Chem 273:19243–19250

  25. Wan X, Liu H, Liao Y, Su Y, Geng J, Yang M, Chen X, Shen P (2007) Isolation of a novel strain of Aeromonas media producing high levels of DOPA-melanin and assessment of the photoprotective role of the melanin in bioinsecticide applications. J Appl Microbiol 103:2533–2541

  26. Wang N, Hebert DN (2006) Tyrosinase maturation through the mammalian secretory pathway: bring color to life. Pigment Cell Res 19:3–18

  27. Wang H, Liu W, Ulbrich N (1995) Isolation and characterization of a tyrosinase from the skin of the white silky fowl (Gallina lanigera) employing copper saturated diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. Biochim Biophys Acta 1243:251–255

  28. Wang G, Aazaz A, Peng Z, Shen P (2000) Cloning and overexpression of a tyrosinase gene mel from Pseudomonas maltophila. FEMS Microbiol Lett 185:23–27

Download references

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Bin Zhang (Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, USA), X. Gao (Wuhan University), H. Zhang (Wuhan University), X.P. Chen (Tongji University), and Z. Li (Tongji Hospital) for their helpful comments and discussions.

Author information

Correspondence to Xiangdong Chen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wan, X., Chai, B., Liao, Y. et al. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a distinct tyrosinase involved in melanin production from Aeromonas media . Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82, 261–269 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1742-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Aeromonas media
  • Tyrosinase
  • Melanin
  • Diphenol oxidase
  • Monophenol oxidase