This study was designed to monitor changes in the levels of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) per unit of microbial mass during the autotrophic biodegradation of thiocyanate (SCN−). An artificial medium containing trace minerals and 500 mg SCN−/L was used as a substrate for bacterial growth. An SCN−-degrading bioreactor with a working volume of 6 L, equipped with temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen controls, was operated in batch mode. During the exponential phase of SCN− biodegradation, the ratios of ATP and DNA to microbial dry weight varied from 0.6 to 1.1 μg ATP/mg of volatile suspended solid (VSS), and from 3.5 to 8.8 μg DNA/mg of VSS, respectively. The ATP and DNA concentrations correlated linearly with microbial mass (r 2 > 0.9) within the exponential phase. The linear regression equations were as follows: (1) microbial mass concentration (mg/L) = 0.663 × ATP concentration (μg/L) + 11.1 and (2) microbial concentration (mg/L) = 0.081 × DNA concentration (μg/L) + 10.9. The applicable ranges were 6.8 to 47.4 μg/L for ATP concentration and 41.5 to 395 μg/L for DNA concentration, respectively.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ahn J, Kim J, Lim J, Hwang S (2004) Biokinetic evaluation and modeling of continuous thiocyanate biodegradation by Klebsiella sp. Biotechnol Prog 20:1069–1075
APHA-AWWA-WEF (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington DC
Atkins PW (1998) Physical chemistry. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Bjorkman KM, Karl DM (2001) A novel method for the measurement of dissolved adenosine and guanosine triphosphate in aquatic habitats: applications to marine microbial ecology. J Microbiol Methods 47:159–167
Button DK, Robertson BR (1989) Kinetics of bacterial processes in natural aquatic systems based on biomass as determined by high-resolution flow cytometry. Cytometry 10:558–563
EPA (1993) Nitrogen control. Office of Research and Development, Washington DC
Grady CPL Jr, Daigger GT, Lim HC (1999) Biological wastewater treatment. Marcel Dekker, New York
Granato M, Goncalves MMM, Boas RCV, Sant'Anna GL Jr (1996) Biological treatment of a synthetic gold milling effluent. Environ Pollut 91:343–350
Hung CH, Pavlostathis SG (1997) Aerobic biodegradation of thiocyanate. Water Res 31:2761–2770
Hung C, Pavlostathis GS (1999) Kinetics and modeling of autotrophic thiocyanate biodegradation. Biotechnol Bioeng 62:1–11
Hwang S, Hansen CL (1998) Evaluating a correlation between volatile suspended solid and adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels in anaerobic treatment of high strength organic suspended solids wastewater. Bioresour Technol 63:243–250
Jorgensen PE, Eriksen T, Jensen BK (1992) Estimation of viable biomass in wastewater and activated sludge by determination of ATP, oxygen utilization rate and FDA hydrolysis. Water Res 26:1495–1501
Karl DM, Bossard P (1985) Measurement and significance of ATP and adenine nucleotide pool turnover in microbial cells and environmental samples. J Microbiol Methods 3:125–139
Kim S, Katayama Y (2000) Effect of growth conditions on thiocyanate degradation and emission of carbonyl sulfide by Thiobacillus thioparus ThI115. Water Res 34:2887–2894
Kim J, Lee C, Shin S, Hwang S (2008) Correlation of microbial mass with ATP and DNA concentrations in acidogenesis of whey permeate. Biodegradation 19:187–195
Lanno RP, Dixon DG (1996) The comparative chronic toxicity of thiocyanate and cyanide to rainbow trout. Aquat Toxicol 36:177–187
Lee C, Kim J, Hwang S (2006) Optimization of adenosine 5′-triphosphate extraction for the measurement of acidogenic biomass utilizing whey wastewater. Biodegradation 17:347–355
Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Parker J (2000) Brock biology of microorganisms. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ
Magic-Knezev A, van der Kooij D (2004) Optimisation and significance of ATP analysis for measuring active biomass in granular activated carbon filters used in water treatment. Water Res 38:3971–3979
Nelson WH (1991) Physical methods for microorganisms detection. CRC, Boston
Paruchuri YL, Shivaraman N, Kumaran P (1990) Microbial transformation of thiocyanate. Environ Pollut 68:15–28
Robertson BR, Button DK, Koch AL (1998) Determination of the biomasses of small bacteria at low concentrations in a mixture of species with forward light scatter measurements by flow cytometry. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:3900–3909
Shuler ML, Kargi F (2002) Bioprocess engineering: basic concepts. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ
Shuler ML, Tsuchiya HM (1975) Cell size as an indicator of changes in intracellular composition of Azotobacter vinelandii. Can J Microbiol 21:927–935
Sikora-Borgula A, Slominska M, Trzonkowksi P, Zielke R, Mysliwski A, Wegrzyn G, Czyzs A (2002) A role for the common GTP-binding protein in coupling of chromosome replication to cell growth and cell division. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 292:333–338
Sorokin DY, Tourova TP, Lysenko AM, Kuenen JG (2001) Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:528–538
Staley JT, Boone DR, Brenner DJ, De Vos P, Garrity GM, Goodfellow M, Krieg NR, Rainey FA, Schleifer K (2005) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Springer, New York, NY
Stryer L (1995) Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman & Company, New York
Trevors JT (2004) Evolution of cell division in bacteria. Theory Biosci 123:3–15
van der Kooij D, Veenendaal HR, Baars-Lorist C, van der Klift DW, Drost YC (1995) Biofilm formation on surfaces of glass and Teflon exposed to treated water. Water Res 29:1655–1662
Venkateswaran K, Hattori N, La Duc MT, Kern R (2003) ATP as a biomarker of viable microorganisms in clean-room facilities. J Microbiol Methods 52:367–377
Wood PA, Kelly PD, McDonald RI, Jordan LS, Morgan DT, Khan S, Murrell JC, Borodina E (1998) A novel pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum sp. nov., capable of growth of thiocyanate or cyanate as sole nitrogen sources. Arch Microbiol 169:148–158
Yang N, Ho W, Chen Y, Hu M (2002) A convenient one-step extraction of cellular ATP using boiling water for the luciferin–luciferase assay of ATP. Anal Biochem 306:323–327
Yu Y, Hansen CL, Hwang S (2002) Biokinetics in acidogenesis of highly suspended organic wastewater by adenosine 5′-triphosphate analysis. Biotechnol Bioeng 78:147–156
This research was supported in part by the BK-21 program, Advanced Environmental Biotechnology Research Center (AEBRC) (Grant no: R11-2003-006-04005-0), and the Ministry of Environment as “The Eco-technopia 21 project”.
About this article
Cite this article
Lim, J., Lee, S., Kim, S. et al. Biochemical indication of microbial mass changes using ATP and DNA measurement in biological treatment of thiocyanate. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 80, 525–530 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-008-1601-4
- Microbial mass
- Thiocyanate biodegradation