Fungus-growing termites have a symbiotic relationship with the basidiomycetes of the genus Termitomyces. This symbiotic system is able to degrade dead plant material efficiently. We conducted expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of a symbiotic Termitomyces fungus degrading plant material in a field nest of the termite Macrotermes gilvus. A subtractive cDNA library was also investigated to facilitate the discovery of genes expressed specifically under the symbiotic conditions. A total of 2,613 ESTs were collected and resulted in 1,582 nonredundant tentative consensus sequences, of which approximately 59% showed significant similarity to known protein sequences. A number of homologous sequences to genes involved in plant cell wall degradation were identified and a majority of them encoded putative pectinolytic enzymes. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed significant upregulation of putative stress response genes under symbiotic conditions. The present ESTs database provides a valuable resource for molecular biological study of plant material degradation in the symbiosis between termites and fungi.
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This work was partially supported by grants for the Bioarchitect Research Program and the Eco Molecular Science Research Program from RIKEN. Y. T. was supported by a grant for the Asian Program Associate of RIKEN. The authors are grateful to Dr. J. Wasmuth for the prot4EST and Dr. Y. Hayashizaki for the DECODER. The authors are grateful to K. Sirihongsuwan and C. Boontong for assistance and to National Research Council of Thailand for the permission to research in Thailand.
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Johjima, T., Taprab, Y., Noparatnaraporn, N. et al. Large-scale identification of transcripts expressed in a symbiotic fungus (Termitomyces) during plant biomass degradation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73, 195–203 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-006-0570-8
- Fungus-growing termite
- Expressed sequence tag
- Lignocellulose degradation