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Process optimization of constitutive human granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) expression in Pichia pastoris fed-batch culture


Human granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) is a therapeutically important cytokine that is poorly expressed because of its toxic effects on the host cells. Extracellular expression of hGM-CSF was obtained by cloning its gene in Pichia pastoris under the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter with an N-terminal α peptide sequence for its extracellular production. The clones obtained were screened for a hyper producer following which media and cultivation conditions were optimized in shake flasks. Batch and fed-batch studies were performed in a bioreactor where different feed compositions were fed exponentially to obtain high biomass concentrations. Feeding of complex media allowed us to maintain a high specific growth rate of 0.2 h−1 for the longest time period, and a final biomass of 98 g DCW/l was obtained in 34 h. Product formation was found to be growth associated, and the product yield with respect to biomass (Y P/X) was ∼2.5 mg/g DCW. The above fed-batch strategy allowed us to obtain fairly pure glycosylated hGM-CSF at a final product concentration of 250 mg/l in the culture supernatant with a high volumetric productivity of 7.35 mg l−1 h−1.

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Mr. Yogender Pal is a recipient of senior research fellowship from CSIR, Government of India.

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Correspondence to K. J. Mukherjee.

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Pal, Y., Khushoo, A. & Mukherjee, K.J. Process optimization of constitutive human granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) expression in Pichia pastoris fed-batch culture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69, 650–657 (2006).

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