Microbial Ecology

, Volume 78, Issue 2, pp 375–387 | Cite as

Dynamics of Biofilm Formation by Salmonella Typhimurium and Beef Processing Plant Bacteria in Mono- and Dual-Species Cultures

  • Jeyachchandran Visvalingam
  • Peipei Zhang
  • Timothy C. Ells
  • Xianqin YangEmail author
Environmental Microbiology


This study aimed to determine the impact of bacteria from a beef plant conveyor belt on the biofilm formation of Salmonella in dual-species cultures. Beef plant isolates (50) including 18 Gram-negative aerobes (GNA), 8 Gram-positive aerobes (GPA), 5 lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 9 Enterobacteriaceae (EB), and 10 generic Escherichia coli (GEC) were included for developing biofilms in mono- and co-culture with S. Typhimurium at 15 °C for 6 days. Five selected cultures in planktonic form and in biofilms were tested for susceptibility to two commonly used sanitizers (i.e. E-San and Perox-E Plus). In mono-cultures, ≥ 80, 67, 61, 20, and 13% of GEC, EB, GNA, LAB, and GPA, respectively, developed measurable biofilms after 2 days, while all co-culture pairings with S. Typhimurium achieved some level of biofilm production. The predominant effect of EB and only effect of GEC strains on the biofilm formation of S. Typhimurium was antagonistic, while that of Gram-positive bacteria was synergistic, with the effect being more prominent on day 6. The effect was highly variable for the GNA isolates. Six aerobic isolates that formed moderate/strong biofilms by day 2 greatly boosted the co-culture biofilm formation. Seven Gram-negative bacteria were antagonistic against the biofilm formation of the co-cultures. Both sanitizers completely inactivated the selected planktonic cultures, but were largely ineffective against biofilms. In conclusion, all beef plant isolates assessed formed biofilms when paired with S. Typhimurium. Aerobic biofilm formers may create a more favorable condition for Salmonella biofilm formation, while some beef plant isolates have potential as a biocontrol strategy for Salmonella biofilms.


Biofilm Environmental microbiota Interaction Antagonism Sanitization 



Technical assistance provided by Danielle St. Jean and Anita Gosh was gratefully acknowledged.

Funding Information

Funding for this study was provided by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada through A-base funding (A-1637 and A-1603).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Crown 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeyachchandran Visvalingam
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peipei Zhang
    • 1
  • Timothy C. Ells
    • 3
  • Xianqin Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Lacombe Research and Development CentreLacombeCanada
  2. 2.Kane Biotech IncWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Kentville Research and Development CentreKentvilleCanada

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