Pediatric multiple sclerosis: from clinical basis to imaging spectrum and differential diagnosis

  • Igor G. PadilhaEmail author
  • Ana P. A. Fonseca
  • Ana L. M. Pettengill
  • Diego C. Fragoso
  • Felipe T. Pacheco
  • Renato H. Nunes
  • Antonio C. M. MaiaJr
  • Antônio J. da Rocha


Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) deserves special attention because of its impact on cognitive function and development. Although knowledge regarding pediatric MS has rapidly increased, understanding the peculiarities of this population remains crucial for disease management. There is limited expertise about the efficacy and safety of current disease-modifying agents. Although pathophysiology is not entirely understood, some risk factors and immunological features have been described and are discussed herein. While the revised International Pediatric MS Study Group diagnostic criteria have improved the accuracy of diagnosis, the recently revised McDonald criteria also offer some new insights into the pediatric population. It is fundamental that radiologists have strong knowledge about the vast spectrum of demyelinating disorders that can occur in childhood to ensure appropriate diagnosis and provide early treatment.


Brain Central nervous system Children Demyelination Diagnostic criteria Differential diagnosis Magnetic resonance imaging Multiple sclerosis Spinal cord 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor G. Padilha
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ana P. A. Fonseca
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana L. M. Pettengill
    • 1
    • 2
  • Diego C. Fragoso
    • 1
    • 3
  • Felipe T. Pacheco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Renato H. Nunes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Antonio C. M. MaiaJr
    • 1
    • 3
  • Antônio J. da Rocha
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of NeuroradiologySanta Casa de São Paulo School of Medical SciencesSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of NeuroradiologyDiagnósticos da América AS – DASASão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Division of NeuroradiologyFleury Medicina e SaúdeSão PauloBrazil

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