Plea for a standardized imaging approach to disorders of sex development in neonates: consensus proposal from European Society of Paediatric Radiology task force
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This consensus article elaborated by the European Society for Paediatric Radiology task force on gastrointestinal and genitourinary imaging is intended to standardize the imaging approach in newborns with disorders of sex development. These newborns represent a difficult and stressful situation necessitating a multidisciplinary team approach. Imaging plays an important role in the work-up but needs to be optimized and customized to the patient. Ultrasound plays the central role in assessing the genital anatomy. The examination must be conducted in a detailed and systematic way. It must include transabdominal and transperineal approaches with adapted high-resolution transducers. The pelvic cavity, the genital folds, the inguinal areas and the adrenals must be evaluated as well as the rest of the abdominal cavity. A reporting template is proposed. The indications of magnetic resonance imaging and cysto- and genitography are discussed as well as they may provide additional information. Imaging findings must be reported cautiously using neutral wording as much as possible.
KeywordsAdrenals Congenital anomalies Disorders of sex development Genital tract Magnetic resonance imaging Neonates Sexual differentiation Ultrasound
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Conflicts of interest
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