Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: techniques and non-oncologic indications
- 264 Downloads
Whole-body MRI is increasingly utilized for assessing oncologic and non-oncologic diseases in infants, children and adolescents. Focusing on the non-oncologic indications, this review covers technical elements required to perform whole-body MRI, the advantages and limitations of the technique, and protocol modifications tailored to specific indications. Rheumatologic diseases account for the majority of non-oncologic whole-body MRI performed in pediatric patients at the author’s institution. Whole-body MRI helps in establishing the diagnosis, documenting disease extent and severity, and monitoring treatment response in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). Other non-oncologic indications for whole-body MRI include osteomyelitis (usually pyogenic), pyrexia of unknown origin, neuromuscular disorders, inherited and inflammatory myopathies such as juvenile dermatomyositis and polymyositis, avascular necrosis, and fat/storage disorders. Use of whole-body MRI in postmortem imaging is rising, while whole-body MRI in non-accidental injury is considered to be of limited value. Imaging findings for a range of these indications are reviewed with whole-body MRI examples.
KeywordsChildren Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis Enthesitis-related arthritis Myopathy Osteomyelitis Postmortem Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging
I thank Govind Chavhan, Andrea Doria, Jennifer Stimec, Manoj Singh, Sumeet Gupta, Tammy Rayner and Ruth Weiss for their contributions developing whole-body MRI at the Hospital for Sick Children, and Warren Corber for his assistance with the clinical audit.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
- 15.van Engelen K, Villani A, Wasserman JD et al (2017) DICER1 syndrome: approach to testing and management at a large pediatric tertiary care center. Pediatr Blood Cancer 65(1)Google Scholar
- 19.Hollingsworth KG, de Sousa PL, Straub V et al (2012) Towards harmonization of protocols for MRI outcome measures in skeletal muscle studies: consensus recommendations from two TREAT-NMD NMR workshops, 2 may 2010, Stockholm, Sweden, 1-2 October 2009, Paris, France. Neuromuscul Disord 22:S54–S67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 35.Finn JP, Nguyen KL, Hu P (2017) Ferumoxytol vs. gadolinium agents for contrast-enhanced MRI: thoughts on evolving indications, risks, and benefits. J Magn Reson Imaging 46:919–923Google Scholar
- 57.Shruthi M, Gupta J, Jana M et al (2018) Conventional vs. virtual autopsy with postmortem MRI in phenotypic characterization of stillbirths and malformed fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 51:236-245Google Scholar