Advertisement

Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 48, Issue 9, pp 1337–1347 | Cite as

A review of neuroblastoma image-defined risk factors on magnetic resonance imaging

  • Alan M. Chen
  • Andrew T. Trout
  • Alexander J. Towbin
Pediatric Body MRI
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid malignancy in children. Historically, neuroblastoma has been staged using the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS), which relies on surgical staging. This is problematic because surgical resection can vary among surgeons and tumors and occurs at interval times from diagnosis. In 2009 the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) created a new staging system that relies on preoperative imaging for staging. The INRG staging system consists of 20 image-defined risk factors (IDRF) across multiple organ systems, which help predict surgical outcomes/adequacy of resection and can be combined with clinical data to provide up-front risk stratification. The purpose of this review is to describe both the INSS and INRG staging systems and their limitations and to illustrate the definitions and IDRFs that comprise the INRG staging system.

Keywords

Children Image-defined risk factors Magnetic resonance imaging Neuroblastoma Oncology Staging 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

None

References

  1. 1.
    Mehta K, Haller JO, Legasto AC (2003) Imaging neuroblastoma in children. Crit Rev Comput Tomogr 44:47–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alvi S, Karadaghy O, Manalang M, Weatherly R (2017) Clinical manifestations of neuroblastoma with head and neck involvement in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 97:157–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lonergan GJ, Schwab CM, Suarez ES, Carlson CL (2002) Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics 22:911–934CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chu CM, Rasalkar DD, Hu YJ et al (2011) Clinical presentations and imaging findings of neuroblastoma beyond abdominal mass and a review of imaging algorithm. Br J Radiol 84:81–91CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nour-Eldin NE, Abdelmonem O, Tawfik AM et al (2012) Pediatric primary and metastatic neuroblastoma: MRI findings: pictorial review. Magn Reson Imaging 30:893–906Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brisse HJ, McCarville MB, Granata C et al (2011) Guidelines for imaging and staging of neuroblastic tumors: consensus report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group project. Radiology 261:243–257Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D'Ambrosio N, Lyo JK, Young RJ et al (2010) Imaging of metastatic CNS neuroblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 194:1223–1229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cistaro A, Quartuccio N, Caobelli F et al (2015) 124I-MIBG: a new promising positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of neuroblastoma. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur 18:102–106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharp SE, Gelfand MJ, Shulkin BL (2008) PET/CT in the evaluation of neuroblastoma. PET Clin 3:551–561CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sharp SE, Gelfand MJ, Shulkin BL (2011) Pediatrics: diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Semin Nucl Med 41:345–353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cohn SL, Pearson AD, London WB et al (2009) The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system: an INRG task force report. J Clin Oncol 27:289–297Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bishop MW, Yin H, Shimada H et al (2014) Management of stage 4S composite neuroblastoma with a MYCN-amplified nodule. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 36:e31–e35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Matthay KK, Shulkin B, Ladenstein R et al (2010) Criteria for evaluation of disease extent by (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scans in neuroblastoma: a report for the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) task force. Br J Cancer 102:1319–1326Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sharp SE, Shulkin BL, Gelfand MJ et al (2009) 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and 18F-FDG PET in neuroblastoma. J Nucl Med 50:1237–1243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Siegel MJ, Ishwaran H, Fletcher BD et al (2002) Staging of neuroblastoma at imaging: report of the radiology diagnostic oncology group. Radiology 223:168–175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Padhani AR, Liu G, Mu-Koh D et al (2009) Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as a cancer biomarker: consensus and recommendations. Neoplasia 11:102–125CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Serin HI, Gorkem SB, Doganay S et al (2016) Diffusion weighted imaging in differentiating malignant and benign neuroblastic tumors. Jpn J Radiol 34:620–624CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wen Y, Peng Y, Duan XM, Zhang N (2017) Role of diffusion-weighted imaging in distinguishing thoracoabdominal neuroblastic tumours of various histological types and differentiation grades. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 61:718–724CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Neubauer H, Li M, Muller VR et al (2017) Diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted MRI for tumor characterization, differentiation and monitoring in pediatric patients with neuroblastic tumors. RöFo 189:640–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Simon T, Hero B, Benz-Bohm G et al (2008) Review of image defined risk factors in localized neuroblastoma patients: results of the GPOH NB97 trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50:965–969CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Monclair T, Brodeur GM, Ambros PF et al (2009) The international neuroblastoma risk group (INRG) staging system: an INRG task force report. J Clin Oncol 27:298–303CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shamberger RC, Smith EI, Joshi VV et al (1998) The risk of nephrectomy during local control in abdominal neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg 33:161–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharp SE, Trout AT, Weiss BD, Gelfand MJ (2016) MIBG in neuroblastoma diagnostic imaging and therapy. Radiographics 36:258–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Demir HA, Yalcin B, Buyukpamukcu N et al (2010) Thoracic neuroblastic tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54:885–889PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan M. Chen
    • 1
  • Andrew T. Trout
    • 1
  • Alexander J. Towbin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyCincinnati Children’s HospitalCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations