Pediatric Radiology

, Volume 48, Issue 9, pp 1197–1208 | Cite as

Fast, free-breathing and motion-minimized techniques for pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging

  • Camilo Jaimes
  • John E. Kirsch
  • Michael S. GeeEmail author
Pediatric Body MRI


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred imaging modality in children with complex medical issues. Patient motion and respiration remain major challenges in pediatric abdominal MRI. Young children ages 3 months to 6 years are unable to cooperate or perform breath-holding and frequently require deep sedation or general anesthesia to undergo MRI. Given the growing concerns associated with the use of sedation and anesthesia as well as the adverse impact on workflow, developing and implementing fast and motion-resistant MRI sequences are of great interest. Fast sequences such as single-shot fast spin echo and balanced steady-state free precession are useful as quick anatomical surveys on routine abdominal MRI. The widespread utilization of parallel imaging and sequences with radial k-space sampling has contributed to decreasing scan time and improving image quality, respectively. Newer strategies including compressed sensing, simultaneous multi-slice acquisition, and hybrid approaches hold the prospect of faster image acquisition that could significantly reduce the need for sedation in this vulnerable population and decrease the time of anesthesia in cases where it is indicated.


Acquisition time Children K-space Magnetic resonance imaging Motion Technique 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camilo Jaimes
    • 1
    • 2
  • John E. Kirsch
    • 2
  • Michael S. Gee
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Imaging,Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyMassachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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