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Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 40, Issue 8, pp 1688–1695 | Cite as

Does Restrictive Lung Function Affect the Exercise Capacity in Patients with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot?

  • Jyothsna Akam-VenkataEmail author
  • Chenni Sriram
  • Michelle French
  • Roxann Smith
  • Sanjeev Aggarwal
Original Article

Abstract

Patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) have decreased exercise capacity (XC) and restrictive lung function (RLF). Our objective was to determine the association between RLF and impaired XC in patients with rTOF. This was a single center retrospective review of patients with rTOF who underwent a cardiopulmonary treadmill exercise testing and spirometry from 2005 to 2015. Patients with a respiratory exchange ratio ≥ 1.05 and peak heart rate > 90% of predicted value were included. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and Forced expiratory volume in 1st second of forceful expiration (FEV1) were used to classify the lung function. Exercise parameters such as peak oxygen uptake (VO2), % of predicted VO2 (%VO2), Metabolic equivalents (METS), and exercise time (ET) were compared between the two groups (i) compared patients with normal lung function (normal FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC > 80%) (ii) RLF (FVC < 80%, normal or increased FEV1/FVC > 80%). In our cohort (n = 151, 52% male, mean age ± SD of 22.3 ± 9.1 years), patients with RLF (n = 73) compared to those with normal lung function (n = 86) had a lower peak VO2 (30.8 ± 8.6 vs. 36.6 ± 9.8 mL/kg/min; p < 0.001) and shorter exercise time (9:23 ± 1:78 vs. 10:23 ± 1:62 min, p < 0.001). On multivariate regression analysis, RLF was independently associated with reduced XC (VO2%) (β-coefficient − 0.182, p < 0.02) after controlling for age and gender. RLF is common in patients with rTOF and is associated with decreased XC. The contribution of RLF to reduced XC in this population should be considered prior to therapeutic decisions.

Keywords

Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Restrictive lung function Impaired aerobic capacity Exercise capacity Lung function Exercise time 

Abbreviations

TOF

Tetralogy of Fallot

CHD

Congenital heart disease

XC

Exercise capacity

VO2

Volume of oxygen uptake

PV

Pulmonary valve

RV

Right ventricle

FVC

Forced vital capacity

RLF

Restrictive lung function

HR

Heart rate

BP

Blood pressure

SpO2

Pulse oximetry

VCO2

Volume of CO2 elimination

VE

Minute ventilation

MVV

Maximum voluntary ventilation

VAT

Ventilatory anaerobic threshold

TV

Tidal volume

METS

Metabolic equivalents of task

ET

Exercise time

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. The study was approved by the Wayne State University School of Medicine and Detroit Medical Center Institutional Review Board.

Informed Consent

Not applicable. Waiver of consent obtained through Wayne State University School of Medicine and Detroit Medical Center Institutional Review Board.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Department of PediatricsThe Carman and Ann Adams, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children’s Hospital of MichiganDetroitUSA

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