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Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 147–153 | Cite as

Examining the Utility of Coronary Artery Lack of Tapering and Perivascular Brightness in Incomplete Kawasaki Disease

  • Edon J. RabinowitzEmail author
  • Lorry G. Rubin
  • Kinjal Desai
  • Denise A. Hayes
  • Aykut Tugertimur
  • Elena N. Kwon
  • Preeta Dhanantwari
  • Nilanjana Misra
  • Guillaume Stoffels
  • Andrew D. Blaufox
  • Elizabeth Mitchell
Original Article

Abstract

Background

In 2017, the AHA published revised guidelines for the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD). In the absence of compelling data supporting or refuting the utility of lack of tapering (LT) and perivascular brightness (PB), expert panel consensus removed LT and PB from consideration. We hypothesize that LT and PB are unreliable, subjective findings, non-specific to KD, which can be seen in systemic febrile illnesses without KD and in normal controls.

Methods

We performed a single-center retrospective study from 1/2008 to 12/2016. De-identified coronary artery (CA) echocardiographic clips from patients 0–10 years old were interpreted blindly by six pediatric cardiologists. Subjects were grouped as follows: (1) healthy: afebrile with benign murmur, (2) KD: IVIG treatment, 4–5 clinical criteria at presentation, (3) incomplete KD (iKD): IVIG, 1–3 clinical criteria, (4) Febrile: ≥3 days of fever, no IVIG, KD not suspected. The presence or absence of LT and PB was recorded. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities were analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient, Fleiss’ Kappa and Cohen’s Kappa coefficients.

Results

We interpreted 117 echocardiograms from healthy (27), KD (30), iKD (32), and febrile (28) subjects. Analysis showed moderate agreement in CA z score measurements. LT and PB were observed by most readers in control groups. LT exhibited fair inter-reader agreement (reliability coefficient 0.36) and PB slight inter-reader agreement (reliability coefficient 0.13). Intra-rater reliability was inconsistent for both parameters.

Conclusions

LT and PB are subjective, poorly reproducible features that can be seen in febrile patients without KD and in healthy children.

Keywords

Incomplete Kawasaki disease Kawasaki disease Lack of tapering Perivascular brightness Coronary vessel disease Acquired heart disease 

Abbreviations

KD

Kawasaki disease

iKD

Incomplete Kawasaki disease

LT

Lack of tapering

PB

Perivascular brightness

CA

Coronary artery

IVIG

Intravenous immunoglobulins

echo

Echocardiogram

LMCA

Left main coronary artery

LAD

Left anterior descending artery

RCA

Right coronary artery

BSA

Body surface area

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest relevant to this article to disclose.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

A waiver of informed consent was obtained from the Northwell Health institutional review board.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edon J. Rabinowitz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lorry G. Rubin
    • 2
  • Kinjal Desai
    • 3
  • Denise A. Hayes
    • 1
  • Aykut Tugertimur
    • 1
  • Elena N. Kwon
    • 1
  • Preeta Dhanantwari
    • 1
  • Nilanjana Misra
    • 1
  • Guillaume Stoffels
    • 4
  • Andrew D. Blaufox
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Mitchell
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric CardiologyCohen Children’s Medical Center of New York – Hofstra Northwell School of MedicineNew Hyde ParkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Infectious DiseaseCohen Children’s Medical Center of New York – Hofstra Northwell School of MedicineNew Hyde ParkUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsCohen Children’s Medical Center of New York – Hofstra Northwell School of MedicineNew Hyde ParkUSA
  4. 4.Feinstein Institute Department of BiostatisticsCohen Children’s Medical Center of New York – Hofstra Northwell School of MedicineNew Hyde ParkUSA

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