Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 39, Issue 8, pp 1688–1699 | Cite as

Predictors of Extended Length of Hospital Stay Following Surgical Repair of Congenital Heart Diseases

  • Ahmad Saeed AzharEmail author
  • Hasan Mohamed Aljefri
Original Article


The purpose of this study is to evaluate post-operative length of stay (LOS) following surgical repair of congenital heart defects (CHD) and to investigate baseline pre-operative factors and predictors of post-operative LOS (pLOS). Retrospective chart review of all cases of corrective surgery for CHD performed at the Pediatric Cardiology Unit, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah during January 2013—December 2016. Baseline demographics, clinical factors, pre-operative, intra-operative, post-operative cardiac and extra-cardiac complications were analyzed as independent factors of pLOS using stepwise linear regression. Kaplan–Meier (KM) survival analysis was used to analyze the correlation of pLOS (in days) with the independent variables and estimate the probability to exceeding a given pLOS. A total 191 patients (52.4% male, 49.7% aged ≤ 1 year) were included with a median [range] LOS = 10 [3, 158] days. Several baseline clinical factors were associated with longer pLOS such as complex CHD types (tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great arteries, etc.), high-risk RACHS categories and low weight at surgery. Independent risk factors of pLOS included pre-operative hemoglobin level (unstandardized regression coefficient: B = 2.96, p = 0.036) as the only pre-operative predictor of LOS, besides intra-operative complications (B = 11.72, p = 0.009) and posto-perative factors including MV duration (B = 9.39, p < 0.001), diet/feeding problems (B = 10.27, p = 0.001) and drain tube stay (B = 3.82, p = 0.003). KM survival curves confirmed that these factors increased the probability for longer LOS. Post-operative LOS was associated with several baseline and peri-operative factors; however, it was independently predicted by abnormal baseline hemoglobin level, the occurrence of intra-operative complications, besides post-operative feeding problems, chest drain stay, and MV duration.


Congenital heart disease Surgery Length of stay Peri-operative Complication 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare having no proprietary, financial, professional, or any other personal interest of any nature or kind in any product or services and/or company that could be construed or considered to be a potential conflict of interest that might have influenced the views that are expressed in this manuscript. Author received no financial support for this study.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the institutional review board of King Abdulaziz University. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric Department, Faculty of MedicineKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Pediatric Cardiac Center of Excellence, Faculty of MedicineKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

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