Pediatric Cardiology

, Volume 39, Issue 8, pp 1642–1649 | Cite as

Hybrid Pulmonary Vein Stenting in Infants with Refractory to Surgical Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Repair

  • Ja Kyoung Yoon
  • Gi Beom Kim
  • Mi Kyoung Song
  • Eun Jung Bae
  • Woong Han Kim
  • Jae Gun Kwak
  • Jeong Ryul Lee
Original Article


Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is still a frustrating disease with extremely high mortality, especially in children with multiple severe PVS. Hybrid pulmonary vein stenting (HPVS) is a rescue treatment for recurrent and malignant PVS. The aim of this study is to share our successful experience with intraoperative HPVS for recurrent PVS after total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) repair in infant. Six patients were identified between 2013 and January 2018, who were diagnosed with recurrent PVS and underwent HPVS in the operating room. The mean age at the time of the HPVS was 10.3 ± 2.7 months (range 7–14 months) and the mean body weight was 7.9 ± 2.6 kg (range 4.1–10.5 kg). Prior pulmonary vein surgery had been performed on average 2.7 times (range 2–3) in all patients. We used a bare-metal stent (BMS) of 6–8 mm diameter in 15 veins of five patients and a drug-eluting coronary stent (DES) in two veins of one patient. All patients had undergone several elective further pulmonary vein in-stent balloon dilatations or another stent insertion after HPVS. Over a mean follow-up of 17.3 ± 13.7 months (range 6–44 months), all patients maintained patency of stents although two patients died due to respiratory failure not associated with PVS. HPVS is a useful treatment modality for recurrent PVS patient that could save the life and achieve longer freedom from restenosis than repetitive surgical pulmonary vein widening only. Even though the prognosis of severe multiple PVS is very poor, planned HPVS could be a good palliation in this patients group.


Pulmonary vein stenosis Stent Infant Surgery Transcatheter 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study formal consent is not required. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ja Kyoung Yoon
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gi Beom Kim
    • 1
    • 4
  • Mi Kyoung Song
    • 1
  • Eun Jung Bae
    • 1
  • Woong Han Kim
    • 3
  • Jae Gun Kwak
    • 3
  • Jeong Ryul Lee
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsSeoul National University Children’s HospitalSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsSejong General HospitalBucheonSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular SurgerySeoul National University Children’s HospitalSeoulSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children’s HospitalSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea

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