Feasibility of Transthoracic Echocardiography Evaluation of Pulmonary Arteries Following Arterial Switch Operation
Pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis is the most common late sequela following arterial switch for d-transposition of the great arteries. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of transthoracic echocardiography in evaluating the pulmonary arteries following repair. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of all echocardiograms performed on patients following arterial switch operation. A numerical scoring system was devised and used to quantify PA visualization based on 2D images, color mapping, and spectral Doppler. The study cohort included 150 patients. The ability to visualize at least one PA was poorer in patients who were older [> 10 years (47%) vs ≤ 10 years (89%) (p < 0.001)], and who had larger body surface area (BSA) (> 1.25 m2 (40%) vs ≤ 1.25 m2 (90%) (p < 0.001)]. Regardless of age, 2D visualization of the pulmonary arteries was poor for the entire cohort. Of those with at least one non-visualized PA, only 54% had alternative imaging performed or ordered within the 5 years at or prior to their last echocardiogram. In conclusion, PA visualization following arterial switch is worse in patients who are older and in those with larger BSA. In such patients, alternative forms of imaging are more likely to be necessary.
KeywordsLeCompte Transposition Pediatric Congenital heart disease
Arterial switch operation
Body surface area
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
d-Transposition of the great arteries
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. Our institution IRB approved the study; it consisted of a retrospective review of de-identified patient information; no procedures were performed on human or animal subjects; and informed consent was not obtained.
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