Guidelines for the Evaluation of Heart Failure in the Fetus With or Without Hydrops


Fetal echocardiography has progressed to be able to diagnose many forms of congenital heart disease and to assess the prognosis of cardiac lesions based on their anatomy and presentation in utero. However, the presence of signs of fetal heart failure, such as hydrops or valvular regurgitation, makes the assessment of prognosis difficult. This article outlines a straightforward method for the rapid evaluation of the fetus who may have congestive heart failure. The differentiation of the prehydropic state from normal is illustrated.

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Correspondence to J. C. Huhta.


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Huhta, J.C. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Heart Failure in the Fetus With or Without Hydrops. Pediatr Cardiol 25, 274–286 (2004).

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  • Fetal
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Hydrops fetalis
  • Doppler echocardiography