Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Road Dust Collected from Myanmar, Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam
In this study, we determined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust from Myanmar, Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam. PAHs were detected in urban and rural areas of Myanmar at mean concentrations of 630 ng/g dry weight and 200 ng/g dry weight, respectively. PAHs were also detected in road dust from Vietnam (mean 1700 ng/g) and Taiwan (2400 ng/g). PAH diagnostic ratios suggested that fossil fuel vehicular exhaust and biomass combustion are major sources of PAHs in road dust in Myanmar. Road dust samples from Japan, Taiwan, and Vietnam had similar PAH diagnostic ratios, implying that PAH sources are similar. We assessed the human health risks posed by PAHs in road dust using carcinogenic equivalents (CEQs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). Mean CEQs were decreased in the order Taiwan (173 ng/g) > Vietnam (162 ng/g for Hanoi) > Myanmar (42 and 31 ng/g for Yangon and Pathein, respectively) > Japan (30 ng/g for Kumamoto). Benz[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene, the predominant PAHs, contributed > 70% of total CEQs. High ILCR values were found for Taiwan (5.9 × 10−4 and 9.9 × 10−4 for children and adults, respectively) and Vietnam (6.5 × 10−4 and 9.2 × 10−4 for children and adults, respectively, in Hanoi), indicating that PAHs in road dust pose cancer risks to the inhabitants of Taiwan and Hanoi. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify PAH pollution in the environment and to evaluate the human health risks of these PAHs in Myanmar.
The authors thank the students and staff of Pathein University in Myanmar, the National University of Civil Engineering (NUCE) in Vietnam, the Fishery Research Institute in Taiwan, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, and Kumamoto University for help with sampling road dust and sediments. This study was supported by the Bilateral Open Partnership Joint Research Project, funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alves CA, Vicente AM, Custodio D, Cerqueira M, Nunes T, Pio C, Lucarelli F, Calzolai G, Nava S, Diapouli E, Eleftheriadis K, Querol X, Bandowe BAM (2017) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (nitro-PAHs, oxygenated PAHs, and azarenes) in PM 2.5 from Southern European cities. Sci Total Environ 595:494–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dang CV, Day RS, Selwyn B, Maldonado YM, Nguyen KC, Le TD, Le MB (2010) Initiating BMI prevalence studies in Vietnamese children: changes in a transitional economy. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19:209–216Google Scholar
- Larsen JC, Larsen PB (1998) Chemical carcinogens. In: Hester RE, Harrison RM (eds) Air pollution and health. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 33–56Google Scholar
- Nakata H, Uehara K, Goto Y, Fukumura M, Shimasaki H, Takikawa K, Miyawaki T (2014) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oysters and sediments from Yatsushiro Sea, Japan: comparison of potential risks among PAHs, dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in benthic organisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 99:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen TC, Loganathan P, Nguyen TV, Vigneswaran S, Kandasamy J, Slee D, Stevenson G, Naidu R (2014) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road deposited sediments, water sediments, and soils in Sydney, Australia: comparisons of concentration distribution, sources and potential toxicity. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 104:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- OEHHA (2009) Technical support document for cancer potency factors. Appendix A : hot spots unit risk and cancer potency values A-1Google Scholar
- Tuyen LH, Tue NM, Suzuki G, Misaki K, Viet PH, Takahashi S, Tanabe S (2014) Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activities in road dust from a metropolitan area, Hanoi Vietnam: Contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and human risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 491–492:246–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1991) Risk assessment guidance for superfund: volume I—human health evaluation manual (part b, development of risk-based preliminary remediation goals). US Environ Prot Agency, Washington, DC [9285.7-01B. EPA/540/R-92/003]Google Scholar
- USEPA (1993) Provisional guidance for quantitative risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons EPA/600/R-93/089Google Scholar
- USEPA (2002) Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfundGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2004) Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Volume I: Human health evaluation manual (part e, supplemental guidance for dermal risk assessment)Google Scholar
- USEPA (2011) Exposure factors handbook, edition (final). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC [EPA/600/R-09/052F]Google Scholar
- USEPA (2012) Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (CASRN 50-32-8)Google Scholar
- Wang Z, Fingas M, Shu YY, Sigotuin L, Landriault M, Lambert P, Turpin R, Campagna P, Mullin J (1999) Quantitative characterization of PAHs in burn residue and soot samples and differentiation of pyrogenic PAHs from petrogenic PAHs- the 1994 Mobile burn study. Environ Sci Technol 33:3100–3109CrossRefGoogle Scholar