Advertisement

Determination of the Polychlorinated Biphenyls Distribution in Different Fat Tissues of Cattle by Age and Gender

  • Ozgür Kuzukiran
  • Ayhan FilaziEmail author
  • Sedat Sevin
  • Begüm Yurdakok-Dikmen
  • Yeliz Yikilmaz
  • Ekrem Erdoğan
  • Filiz Şen
  • Fatma Esra Totan
  • Cagan Celik
  • Ozlem Kirmizibayrak
Article

Abstract

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which cause environmental pollution, are found in animal-based fatty foods. Due to their long half-life and lipophilic properties, they can accumulate in the fat tissues of cattle. The study was conducted to compare the PCB levels (PCB28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in the different fat tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, spinal cord, lung, back fat, perihepatic fat, and perirenal fat) of cattle by age and gender. This information is also useful to evaluate the exposure risks for different bovine edible tissues. Therefore, 15 female and 15 male cattle under 24 months of age and 15 female and 15 male cattle over 24 months of age were used, and 480 samples were analyzed for target PCBs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Of all the samples, two (50.2 µg/kg in perihepatic fat and 51.1 µg/kg in kidney) were found above the maximum residue limit; these samples were taken from the animals in the elderly female group (over 24 months). There were more PCBs in cattle older than 2 years. Muscle, kidney, and perihepatic fat presented higher PCB concentrations than other tissues, and perirenal fat presented lower PCB concentrations than other tissues. PCB101, PCB153, and PCB138 were found to have the highest contribution to the PCB concentration. Thus, it is concluded that perihepatic fat, muscle, or kidney should be sampled, particularly in routine residue monitoring, and specifically analyzed for PCB101, PCB153, and PCB138.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policies Research in the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (Project No: TAGEM/HSGYAD/15/A05/P01/83). The authors sincerely thank the Committee of General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policies.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Supplementary material

244_2019_679_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 18 kb)

References

  1. Aksoy A, Guvenc D, Yavuz O, Das YK, Atmaca E (2012) Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticide levels of sea and cultured farm fish in the Samsun region of Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88(6):842–849Google Scholar
  2. Arıkan K, Arıkan ZY, Turan SL (2018) Persistent organochlorine contaminant residues in tissues of hedgehogs from Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 100(3):361–368Google Scholar
  3. ATSDR (2000) U.S. Department of Health And Human Servıces Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS). ATSDR. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp17.pdf. Accessed 11 July 2019
  4. Bachour G, Failing K, Georgii S, Elmadfa I, Brunn H (1998) Species and organ dependence of PCB contamination in fish, foxes, roe deer, and humans. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 35(4):666–673Google Scholar
  5. Berglund O, Larsson P, Ewald G, Okla L (2001) The effect of Lake Trophy on lipid content and PCB concentrations in planktonic food webs. Ecology 82:1078–1088Google Scholar
  6. Borgmann U, Whittle DM (1992) Bioenergetics and PCB, DDE, and mercury dynamics in Lake Ontario Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): a model based on surveillance data. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49(6):1086–1096Google Scholar
  7. Dirtu AC et al (2006) Organohalogenated pollutants in human serum from Iassy, Romania and their relation with age and gender. Environ Int 32(6):797–803Google Scholar
  8. EFSA (2010) Scientific report of EFSA (2010). Results of the monitoring of non dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed. EFSA J 8(7):1701Google Scholar
  9. Erickson BE (1999) Dioxin food crisis in Belgium. Anal Chem 71:541A–543AGoogle Scholar
  10. Fries GF, Marrow GS (1977) Distribution of hexachlorobenzene residues in beef steers. J Anim Sci 45(5):1160–1165Google Scholar
  11. Fries GF, Cook RM, Prewitt LR (1978) Distribution of polybrominated biphenyl residues in the tissues of environmentally contaminated dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 61(4):420–425Google Scholar
  12. Glynn AW et al (2000) PCB and chlorinated pesticide concentrations in swine and bovine adipose tissue in Sweden 1991–1997: spatial and temporal trends. Sci Total Environ 246(2–3):195–206Google Scholar
  13. Hardell E, Carlberg M, Nordström M, van Bavel B (2010) Time trends of persistent organic pollutants in Sweden during 1993–2007 and relation to age, gender, body mass index, breast-feeding and parity. Sci Total Environ 408(20):4412–4419Google Scholar
  14. Hens B, Hens L (2018) Persistent threats by persistent pollutants: chemical nature, concerns and future policy regarding PCBs—what are we heading for? Toxics 6(1):1–21Google Scholar
  15. Henshel DS, Sparks DW, Simon TP, Tosick MJ (2006) Age structure and growth of Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill) in PCB contaminated streams. J Fish Biol 68:44–62Google Scholar
  16. Hoogenboom R, Bovee T, Portier L, Bor G, van der Weg G, Onstenk C, Traag W (2004) The German bakery waste incident; use of a combined approach of screening and confirmation for dioxins in feed and food. Talanta 63(5):1249–1253Google Scholar
  17. IARC (2016) International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyls, vol 107. IARC. https://monographs.iarc.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/mono107.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2019
  18. Kampire E, Rubidge G, Adams JB (2015) Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl residues in several tissues of fish from the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Water SA 41(4):559–570Google Scholar
  19. Karakas F, Gedik K, Imamoglu I (2013) Apportionment of PCB sources near a transformer maintenance and repair facility in Ankara. Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 91(2):141–147Google Scholar
  20. Kim M et al (2004) Comparison of seven indicator PCBs and three coplanar PCBs in beef, pork, and chicken fat. Chemosphere 54(10):1533–1538Google Scholar
  21. Kim M, Kim DG, Bong YH, Jang JH, Son SW (2013) Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, PBDEs, and hexachlorobenzene in fat samples from cattle of different ages and gender in Korea. Food Chem 138(2–3):1786–1791Google Scholar
  22. Koseman A, Seker I (2015) Current status of cattle, sheep and goat breeding in Turkey. Van Vet J 26(2):111–117Google Scholar
  23. Kuzukiran O, Filazi A (2016) Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyl residues in meat products by QuEChERS method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 9(7):1867–1875Google Scholar
  24. Kuzukiran O, Yurdakok-Dikmen B, Filazi A, Sevin S, Aydin FG, Tutun H (2016) Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediments by ultrasound-assisted isolation and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Lett 49(15):2525–2536Google Scholar
  25. Li L, Arnot JA, Wania F (2018) Towards a systematic understanding of the dynamic fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in indoor, urban and rural environments. Environ Int 117:57–68Google Scholar
  26. Lorber M, Feil V, Winters D, Ferrario J (1997) Distribution of dioxins, furans, and coplanar PCBs in different fat matrices in cattle. Presented at Dioxin ‘97, the 17th International symposium on chlorinated dioxins and related compounds, held Aug 25–29 at Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Short paper in, Organohalogen Compounds, vol 32, pp 337–332Google Scholar
  27. Madenjian CP, O’Connor DV, Chernyak SM, Rediske RR, O’Keefe JP (2004) Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:627–635Google Scholar
  28. Madenjian CP et al (2006) Evaluation of a Lake Whitefish bioenergetics model. Trans Am Fish Soc 135(1):61–75Google Scholar
  29. Magnusson B, Ornemark U (2014) Eurachem guide: the fitness for purpose of analytical methods: a laboratory guide to method validation and related topics, (2nd ed. 2014). ISBN 978-91-87461-59-0. EURACHEM. https://www.eurachem.org/images/stories/Guides/pdf/MV_guide_2nd_ed_EN.pdf. Accessed 11 July 2019
  30. Malarvannan G et al (2013) Distribution of persistent organic pollutants in two different fat compartments from obese individuals. Environ Int 55:33–42Google Scholar
  31. Marchand P et al (2010) Predicting PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB contamination levels in bovine edible tissues from in vivo sampling. Chemosphere 80(6):634–640Google Scholar
  32. McLachlan MS (1996) Biological uptake and transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Issues Environ Sci Technol 6:31–52Google Scholar
  33. Norén K, Meironyté D (2000) Certain organochlorine and organobromine contaminants in Swedish human milk in perspective of past 20–30 years. Chemosphere 40(9–11):1111–1123Google Scholar
  34. Rumsey TS, Putnam PA, Davis RE, Corley C (1967) Distribution of p,p′-DDT residues in adipose and muscle tissues of beef cattle. J Agric Food Chem 15(5):898–901Google Scholar
  35. Rypel AL, Findlay RH, Mitchell JB, Bayne DR (2007) Variations in PCB concentrations between genders of six warmwater fish species in Lake Logan Martin, Alabama, USA. Chemosphere 68(9):1707–1715Google Scholar
  36. Schulz-Bull DE, Petrick G, Bruhn R, Duinker JC (1998) Chlorobiphenyls (PCB) and PAHs in water masses of the northern North Atlantic. Mar Chem 61(1):101–114Google Scholar
  37. Sevin S et al (2018) Selected persistent organic pollutants levels in the Ankara River by months. Environ Monit Assess 190(12):705Google Scholar
  38. Shen et al (2012) Physiologically based persistent organic pollutant accumulation in pig tissues and their edible safety differences: an in vivo study. Food Chem 132(4):1830–1835Google Scholar
  39. Sim MR, McNeil JJ (1992) Monitoring chemical exposure using breast milk: a methodological review. Am J Epidemiol 136(1):1–11Google Scholar
  40. Thorpe S, Kelly M, Startin J, Harrison N, Rose M (2001) Concentration changes for 5 PCDD/F congeners after administration in beef cattle. Chemosphere 43(4–7):869–879Google Scholar
  41. Viluksela M et al (1996) Toxicokinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in two substrains of male Long-Evans rats after intravenous injection. Fundam Appl Toxicol 31(2):184–191Google Scholar
  42. Vives I et al (2005) Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees). Environ Pollut 133:343–350Google Scholar
  43. Wingfors H et al (2000) Multivariate data evaluation of PCB and dioxin profiles in the general population in Sweden and Spain. Chemosphere 40(9):1083–1088Google Scholar
  44. Winters D et al (1996) Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a national sample of beef in the United States: preliminary results. Presented at Dioxin ‘96, The 16th symposium on chlorinated dioxins and related compounds, held Aug 12–16 at Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Short paper in, Organohalogen Compounds, vol 27, pp 386–390Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ozgür Kuzukiran
    • 1
  • Ayhan Filazi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sedat Sevin
    • 2
  • Begüm Yurdakok-Dikmen
    • 2
  • Yeliz Yikilmaz
    • 3
  • Ekrem Erdoğan
    • 3
  • Filiz Şen
    • 3
  • Fatma Esra Totan
    • 2
  • Cagan Celik
    • 2
  • Ozlem Kirmizibayrak
    • 3
  1. 1.Veterinary Department, Eldivan Vocational School of Health ServicesCankiri Karatekin UniversityCankiriTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAnkara UniversityDiskapi-AnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Etlik Veterinary Research Control InstituteEtlik, AnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations