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Occurrence and Estrogenic Potency of Bisphenol Analogs in Sewage Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Central China

  • Long PangEmail author
  • Huiqiang Yang
  • Lina Lv
  • Sijia Liu
  • Wentao Gu
  • Yifan Zhou
  • Yue Wang
  • Peijie Yang
  • Hui Zhao
  • Li Guo
  • Jianguo Dong
Article

Abstract

Land application is suggested to be the most economical sludge disposal method but is also a potential source of bisphenol analogs (BPs) to the environment. In this study, BP concentrations in sewage sludge from Henan province ranged from 15.1 to 2237 ng g−1 dw. BPA was dominant with mean concentration of 140 ng g−1 dw, followed by BPS (mean 43.4 ng g−1 dw), BPF (mean 7.98 ng g−1 dw), BPAF (mean 1.04 ng g−1 dw), BPAP (mean 0.88 ng g−1 dw), BPB (mean 0.38 ng g−1 dw), and BPZ (mean 0.33 ng g−1 dw). Apart from BPB, no significant correlations were found between BPs and wastewater treatment plants characteristics, probably because adsorption does not play a major role in the removal of BPs. The estimated total emission flux of BPs from sludge-amended soils are approximately 62.7 kg year−1. BPA is the largest contributor with emission flux of 45.3 kg year−1. Hazard quotient values for BPs in sludge-amended soils are 3–6 orders of magnitude lower than 1 with total 17β-estradiol equivalents ranging from 0.33 to 26.8 pg g−1 E2EQ dw. Overall, although being partially replaced by other analogs, BPA is still widely used in Henan province.

Notes

Funding

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21707124) and Henan Province Scientific and Technological Research Projects (182102311109).

Supplementary material

244_2019_663_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 3898 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Long Pang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Huiqiang Yang
    • 1
  • Lina Lv
    • 1
  • Sijia Liu
    • 1
  • Wentao Gu
    • 1
  • Yifan Zhou
    • 1
  • Yue Wang
    • 1
  • Peijie Yang
    • 1
  • Hui Zhao
    • 2
  • Li Guo
    • 2
  • Jianguo Dong
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Material and Chemical EngineeringZhengzhou University of Light IndustryZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Henan Province Environmental Monitoring CenterZhengzhouChina
  3. 3.Jiaozuo Municipal Environmental Protection BureauJiaozuoChina

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