Advertisement

Seasonal, Spatial Variation, and Potential Sources of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water and Sediment in the Lower Reaches of the Dong Nai River System in Vietnam

  • Tong Xuan Nguyen
  • Binh Thanh Nguyen
  • Huong Thu Thi Tran
  • Huong Mai
  • Thuy Thi Duong
  • Quang-Vu BachEmail author
Article

Abstract

The goals of the current study were (1) to examine seasonal and spatial variation of selected OCPs concentrations and (2) to identify potential sources of the pollutants in the lower reaches of the Dong Nai River system. Forty-eight water and sediment samples were taken from 12 stations in the dry and rainy seasons to determine the concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (total DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (total HCHs), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin. The concentrations of total DDTs (0.30), total HCHs (0.29), Aldrin (0.068), heptachlor (0.04, µg L−1) in water, and total DDTs (8.04), total HCHs (4.51), and Aldrin (1.52, µg kg−1) in sediment were significantly higher in the rainy season than in the dry season (0.14, 0.12, 0.008, 0.009 in water and 3.49, 2.29, and 0.4 in sediment, respectively). Cluster analysis grouped 12 sampling stations into 2 groups, of which group 1 (3 stations) had higher concentrations of total DDTs, total HCHs, Aldrin, heptachlor, and dieldrin in both water and sediment than in group 2. Compositional analysis of total DDTs revealed that DDT residue could be decomposed significantly for the past years and that anaerobic decomposition could be predominant. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) indicated that the potential sources of OCPs in the study stations could come from residential and agricultural areas located in the upper catchment or areas surrounding the studied stations. In short, OCPs concentration in the studies area could depend on seasonal, spatial variation, and transport of OCPs from upper parts or surrounding areas.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The first author thanks the personnel of Graduate University of Science and Technology, Viet Nam Academy of Science and Technology for help during his Ph.D. study. The current study was conducted in the Institute of Environmental Science, Engineering and Management (IESEM), Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City. Thanks also are given to students, staffs, and colleagues at the ISSEM for helping with field trips and sample preparation for OCPs analyses.

Supplementary material

244_2019_653_MOESM1_ESM.docx (33 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 32 kb)

References

  1. Barasa MW, Wandiga SO, Lalah JO (2007) Seasonal variation in concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues in tropical estuarine sediments along the Indian Ocean Coast of Kenya. Mar Pollut Bull 54(12):1979–1984Google Scholar
  2. Behfar A, Nazari Z, Rabiee MH, Raeesi G, Oveisi MR, Sadeghi N, Jannat B (2013) The organochlorine pesticides residue levels in Karun River water. Jundishapur J Nat Pharma Prod 8(1):41–46Google Scholar
  3. Bhattacharya B, Sarkar SK, Mukherjee N (2003) Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments of a tropical mangrove estuary, India: implications for monitoring. Environ Int 29(5):587–592Google Scholar
  4. Bossi R, Larsen B, Premazzi G (1992) Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in bottom sediment cores of Lake Garda (Italy). Sci Total Environ 121:77–93Google Scholar
  5. Carvalho FP (2017) Pesticides, environment, and food safety. Food Energy Security 6(2):48–60Google Scholar
  6. Chau KW (2006) Persistent organic pollution characterization of sediments in Pearl River estuary. Chemosphere 64(9):1545–1549Google Scholar
  7. Covaci A, Gheorghe A, Voorspoels S, Maervoet J, Steen Redeker E, Blust R, Schepens P (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediment cores from the Western Scheldt river (Belgium): analytical aspects and depth profiles. Environ Int 31(3):367–375Google Scholar
  8. Doong R-A, Peng C-K, Sun Y-C, Liao P-L (2002) Composition and distribution of organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Wu-Shi River estuary, Taiwan. Mar Pollut Bull 45(1):246–253Google Scholar
  9. Eqani SA, Malik RN, Mohammad A (2011) The level and distribution of selected organochlorine pesticides in sediments from River Chenab, Pakistan. Environ Geochem Health 33(1):33–47Google Scholar
  10. Fuoco R, Giannarelli S, Wei Y, Ceccarini A, Abete C, Francesconi S, Termine M (2009) Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at Ross Sea (Antarctica). Microchem J 92(1):44–48Google Scholar
  11. Guruge KS, Tanabe S (2001) Contamination by persistent organochlorines and butyltin compounds in the west coast of Sri Lanka. Mar Pollut Bull 42(3):179–186Google Scholar
  12. Hitch RK, Day HR (1992) Unusual persistence of DDT in some Western USA soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 48(2):259–264Google Scholar
  13. Hoai PM, Ngoc NT, Minh NH, Viet PH, Berg M, Alder AC, Giger W (2010) Recent levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments of the sewer system in Hanoi, Vietnam. Environ Pollut 158(3):913–920Google Scholar
  14. Hong H, Chen W, Xu L, Wang X, Zhang L (1999) Distribution and fate of organochlorine pollutants in the Pearl River estuary. Mar Pollut Bull 39(1):376–382Google Scholar
  15. Hong SH, Yim UH, Shim WJ, Oh JR, Viet PH, Park PS (2008) Persistent organochlorine residues in estuarine and marine sediments from Ha Long Bay, Hai Phong Bay, and Ba Lat estuary, Vietnam. Chemosphere 72(8):1193–1202Google Scholar
  16. Imo ST, Sheikh MA, Hirosawa E, Oomori T, Tamaki F (2007) Contamination by organochlorine pesticides from rivers. Int J Environ Sci Technol 4(1):1–9Google Scholar
  17. Iwata H, Tanabe S, Sakai N, Nishimura A, Tatsukawa R (1994) Geographical distribution of persistent organochlorines in air, water and sediments from Asia and Oceania, and their implications for global redistribution from lower latitudes. Environ Pollut 85(1):15–33Google Scholar
  18. Kaplunovsky AS (2005) Factor analysis in environmental studies. HAIT J Sci Eng B 2(1–2):54–94Google Scholar
  19. Leadprathom N, Parkpian P, Satayavivad J, Delaune RD, Jugsujinda A (2009) Transport and deposition of organochlorine pesticides from farmland to estuary under tropical regime and their potential risk to aquatic biota. J Environ Sci Health B Pestic Food Contam Agric Wastes 44(3):249–261Google Scholar
  20. Ma Y, Halsall CJ, Crosse JD, Graf C, Cai M, He J, Gao G, Jones K (2015) Persistent organic pollutants in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean. J Geophys Res Oceans 120(4):2723–2735Google Scholar
  21. Mangano MC, Sara G, Corsolini S (2017) Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in the polar regions: knowledge gaps & gluts through evidence mapping. Chemosphere 172:37–45Google Scholar
  22. McKenzie-Smith F, Tiller D, Allen D (1994) Organochlorine pesticide residues in water and sediments from the Ovens and King Rivers, North-East Victoria, Australia. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 26(4):483–490Google Scholar
  23. Md Pauzi A, Naghmeh S, Wan Mohd AWMK, Zuriati Z (2015) Pattern recognition of the presence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediment of cameron highlands, Malaysia. Malaysian J Anal Sci 19(4):692–706Google Scholar
  24. Minh NH, Minh TB, Iwata H, Kajiwara N, Kunisue T, Takahashi S, Viet PH, Tuyen BC, Tanabe S (2007) Persistent organic pollutants in sediments from Sai Gon-Dong Nai River basin, Vietnam: levels and temporal trends. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 52(4):458–465Google Scholar
  25. MONRE (2006) Vietnam national implementation plan: For Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants. https://www.informea.org/sites/default/files/reports/action_plans/stockholm/UNEP-POPS-NIP-VietNam-1.English.pdf. Accessed October 2018
  26. Mutiyar PK, Mittal AK (2013) Status of organochlorine pesticides in Ganga river basin: anthropogenic or glacial? Drinking Water Eng Sci 6:69–80Google Scholar
  27. Nguyen TX, Nguyen BT, Tran HTT, Le TT, Trinh TT, Trinh TT, Tu MB, Cao N-D-T, Vo HDT (2019) The interactive effect of the season and estuary position on the concentration of persistent organic pollutants in water and sediment from the Cua Dai estuary in Vietnam. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:10756–10766Google Scholar
  28. Nhan DD, Am NM, Hoi NC, Van Dieu L, Carvalho FP, Villeneuve JP, Cattini C (1998) Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the Red River Delta, North Vietnam. Mar Pollut Bull 36(9):742–749Google Scholar
  29. Nost TH, Halse AK, Schlabach M, Backlund A, Eckhardt S, Breivik K (2018) Low concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air at Cape Verde. Sci Total Environ 612:129–137Google Scholar
  30. O’Sullivan G, Megson D (2014) Brief overview: discovery, regulation, properties, and fate of POPs. In: O’Sullivan G, Sandau C (eds) Environmental forensics for persistent organic pollutants. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  31. Ott R, Longnecker M (2011) An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis, 5th edn. Cengage Learning, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  32. Phung D, Huang C, Rutherford S, Dwirahmadi F, Chu C, Wang X, Nguyen M, Nguyen NH, Do CM, Nguyen TH, Dinh TA (2015) Temporal and spatial assessment of river surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: a study in Can Tho City, a Mekong Delta area, Vietnam. Environ Monit Assess 187(5):229Google Scholar
  33. Rahman MM (2013) Insecticide substitutes for DDT to control mosquitoes may be causes of several diseases. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 20(4):2064–2069Google Scholar
  34. Ramesh A, Tanabe S, Iwata H, Tatsukawa R, Subramanian AN, Mohan D, Venugopalan VK (1990) Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine insecticide residues in Vellar River waters in Tamil Nadu, South India. Environ Pollut 67(4):289–304Google Scholar
  35. Rizzi J, Taniguchi S, Martins CC (2017) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from an urban- and industrial-impacted subtropical estuary (Babitonga Bay, Brazil). Mar Pollut Bull 119(1):390–395Google Scholar
  36. Shen L, Wania F, Lei YD, Teixeira C, Muir DC, Bidleman TF (2005) Atmospheric distribution and long-range transport behavior of organochlorine pesticides in North America. Environ Sci Technol 39(2):409–420Google Scholar
  37. Singh Z, Kaur J, Kaur R, Hundal SS (2016) Toxic effects of organochlorine pesticides: a review. Am J BioSci 4(3-1):11–18. Special issue: recent trends in experimental toxicology.  https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajbio.s.2016040301.13
  38. Strandberg B, van Bavel B, Bergqvist P-A, Broman D, Ishaq R, Näf C, Pettersen H, Rappe C (1998) Occurrence, sedimentation, and spatial variations of organochlorine contaminants in settling particulate matter and sediments in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. Environ Sci Technol 32(12):1754–1759Google Scholar
  39. Takeoka H, Ramesh A, Iwata H, Tanabe S, Subramanian AN, Mohan D, Magendran A, Tatsukawa R (1991) Fate of the insecticide HCH in the tropical coastal area of South India. Mar Pollut Bull 22(6):290–297Google Scholar
  40. UNEP (2003) Stockholm Convention: master list of actions: on the reduction and/or elimination of the releases of persistent organic pollutants, 5th edn. United Nations Environmental Programme, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  41. UNEP (2018) National implementation plans, Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants. http://chm.pops.int/Implementation/NationalImplementationPlans/NIPTransmission/tabid/253/Default.aspx. Accessed October 2018
  42. Wang H, Wang C, Wu W, Mo Z, Wang Z (2003) Persistent organic pollutants in water and surface sediments of Taihu Lake, China and risk assessment. Chemosphere 50(4):557–562Google Scholar
  43. WHO (2018) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/drinking-water-quality-guidelines-4-including-1st-addendum/en/. Accessed August 2018
  44. Williams AB (2011) Levels and distribution of chlorinated pesticide residues inwater and sediments of Tarkwa Bay, Lagos Lagoon. J Res Environ Sci Toxicol 21(1):1–8Google Scholar
  45. Yang R-Q, Lv A-H, Shi J-B, Jiang G-B (2005) The levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments from the Haihe River, China. Chemosphere 61(3):347–354Google Scholar
  46. Zheng S, Chen B, Qiu X, Chen M, Ma Z, Yu X (2016) Distribution and risk assessment of 82 pesticides in Jiulong River and estuary in South China. Chemosphere 144:1177–1192Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tong Xuan Nguyen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Binh Thanh Nguyen
    • 1
  • Huong Thu Thi Tran
    • 3
  • Huong Mai
    • 4
  • Thuy Thi Duong
    • 5
  • Quang-Vu Bach
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Science, Engineering, and ManagementIndustrial University of Ho Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  2. 2.Graduate University of Science and TechnologyViet Nam Academy of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Faculty of EnvironmentHanoi University of Mining and GeologyHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.University of Science and Technology of Hanoi, VASTHanoiVietnam
  5. 5.Institute of Environmental Technology, VASTHanoiVietnam
  6. 6.Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Environment Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour SafetyTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations