Seasonal, Spatial Variation, and Potential Sources of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water and Sediment in the Lower Reaches of the Dong Nai River System in Vietnam

  • Tong Xuan Nguyen
  • Binh Thanh Nguyen
  • Huong Thu Thi Tran
  • Huong Mai
  • Thuy Thi Duong
  • Quang-Vu BachEmail author


The goals of the current study were (1) to examine seasonal and spatial variation of selected OCPs concentrations and (2) to identify potential sources of the pollutants in the lower reaches of the Dong Nai River system. Forty-eight water and sediment samples were taken from 12 stations in the dry and rainy seasons to determine the concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (total DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (total HCHs), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin. The concentrations of total DDTs (0.30), total HCHs (0.29), Aldrin (0.068), heptachlor (0.04, µg L−1) in water, and total DDTs (8.04), total HCHs (4.51), and Aldrin (1.52, µg kg−1) in sediment were significantly higher in the rainy season than in the dry season (0.14, 0.12, 0.008, 0.009 in water and 3.49, 2.29, and 0.4 in sediment, respectively). Cluster analysis grouped 12 sampling stations into 2 groups, of which group 1 (3 stations) had higher concentrations of total DDTs, total HCHs, Aldrin, heptachlor, and dieldrin in both water and sediment than in group 2. Compositional analysis of total DDTs revealed that DDT residue could be decomposed significantly for the past years and that anaerobic decomposition could be predominant. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) indicated that the potential sources of OCPs in the study stations could come from residential and agricultural areas located in the upper catchment or areas surrounding the studied stations. In short, OCPs concentration in the studies area could depend on seasonal, spatial variation, and transport of OCPs from upper parts or surrounding areas.



The first author thanks the personnel of Graduate University of Science and Technology, Viet Nam Academy of Science and Technology for help during his Ph.D. study. The current study was conducted in the Institute of Environmental Science, Engineering and Management (IESEM), Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City. Thanks also are given to students, staffs, and colleagues at the ISSEM for helping with field trips and sample preparation for OCPs analyses.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tong Xuan Nguyen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Binh Thanh Nguyen
    • 1
  • Huong Thu Thi Tran
    • 3
  • Huong Mai
    • 4
  • Thuy Thi Duong
    • 5
  • Quang-Vu Bach
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Science, Engineering, and ManagementIndustrial University of Ho Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  2. 2.Graduate University of Science and TechnologyViet Nam Academy of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  3. 3.Faculty of EnvironmentHanoi University of Mining and GeologyHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.University of Science and Technology of Hanoi, VASTHanoiVietnam
  5. 5.Institute of Environmental Technology, VASTHanoiVietnam
  6. 6.Sustainable Management of Natural Resources and Environment Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour SafetyTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

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