Glyphosate- and Fipronil-Based Agrochemicals and Their Mixtures Change Zebrafish Behavior
Environmental contamination caused by the human occupancy and economic activities that generate a wide range of contaminated effluents that reach natural water resources, is a current reality. Residues of agrichemicals used in plant production were detected in different environments and in different countries. Among these agrochemicals, we studied a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH), a fipronil-based insecticide (FBI), and their mixtures (GBH + FBI). Zebrafish exposed to 3 and 5 mg/L of GBH spend more time in the top zone and less time in the bottom zone. Fish exposed to 0.009 and 0.018 mg/L of FBI spent less time in the bottom zone, whereas zebrafish exposed to the three GBH + FBI mixtures spend more time in the top zone compared with unexposed control fish. This clear anxiolytic pattern, in an environmental context, can directly impair the ability of fish to avoid or evade predators. We concluded that both glyphosate-based herbicide and fipronil-based insecticide and their mixtures alter zebrafish behavior, which may result in significant repercussions on the maintenance of the species as well as on the food chain and the ecosystem.
This study was funded by the Universidade de Passo Fundo, CNPq and CAPES, by the Programa de Apoio à Pós-Graduação (PROAP). A.P. holds post-graduation CAPES fellowship, and L.J.G.B. holds CNPq research fellowship (303263/2018-0). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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