Dependence of urban air pollutants on morning/evening peak hours and seasons

  • Sunil Kumar Gupta
  • Suresh Pandian ElumalaiEmail author


Traffic emission is a major source of air pollution in urban cities of developing world. This paper shows dependence of traffic-related air pollutants in urban cities on morning/evening peak hours and winter/summer seasons. This research also shows the meteorological impact, such as temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (WS), on traffic-related air pollutants in urban cites. Based on the research output, the elevated level of PM concentration was observed between 1.8 and 6.7 times at all nearby roadway locations compared with background (IIT [ISM] campus). We have found 2.3, 2.4, 2.6 (morning) and 2.0, 2.1, and 2.1 (evening) times higher average PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations, respectively, in the winter than summer monitoring periods across all locations, due to the stable boundary layer, lower mixing height, and lower friction velocity. It is indicated that urban meteorology plays a crucial role in increasing or decreasing exposed pollutant concentrations in various microenvironments. The analysis of PM2.5/PM10 ratios was lower during whole campaign due to higher contribution of coarser particles generated by vehicles. During winter and summer seasons, 0.57 and 0.33 was observed, respectively. It is indicated that 57% and 33% of PM10 makes up PM2.5 particle, respectively. PM concentrations have showed a negative linear relationship with T and WS and positive relationship with RH in winter/summer seasons. Therefore, traffic and meteorology play a big role to increase or decrease in traffic-related air pollutants in urban air quality.



The authors acknowledge the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Dhanbad for providing the logistic supports. The authors also acknowledge Jharkhand Space Association Center for sharing meteorological data from the weather station installed in IIT (ISM) campus. They also thank “Regional office Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board Dhanbad” for providing 24-h online ambient air quality data. Sincere thanks to Mr. Anil Kumar (Ph.D. Scholar) and Mr. Sanjeet Singh (B. Tech student) in the Dept. of ESE, IIT (ISM), Dhanbad for his help in conducting field study.

Supplementary material

244_2019_616_MOESM1_ESM.docx (58 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 58 kb)


  1. Adams HS, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Colvile RN et al (2001) Fine particle (PM2.5) personal exposure levels in transport microenvironments, London, UK. Sci Total Environ 279:29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amato F, Pandolfi M, Escrig A et al (2009) Quantifying road dust resuspension in urban environment by multilinear engine: a comparison with PMF2. Atmos Environ 43:2770–2780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson HR, Favarato G, Atkinson RW (2013) Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of asthma: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Air Qual Atmos Health 6:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bahreini R, Ervens B, Middlebrook AM et al (2009) Organic aerosol formation in urban and industrial plumes near Houston and Dallas, Texas. J Geophys Res Atmos 114:D00F16(1–17).
  5. Baker AK, Beyersdorf AJ, Doezema LA et al (2008) Measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons in 28 United States cities. Atmos Environ 42:170–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boogaard H, Kos GP, Weijers EP et al (2011) Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number. Atmos Environ 45:650–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradley KS, Stedman DH, Bishop GA (1999) A global inventory of carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles. Chemos Glob Change Sci 1:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brunekreef B, Holgate ST (2002) Air pollution and health. Lancet 360:1233–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burkart J, Steiner G, Reischl G et al (2010) Characterizing the performance of two optical particle counters (Grimm OPC1.108 and OPC1.109) under urban aerosol conditions. J Aerosol Sci 41:953–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cacciola RR, Sarva M, Polosa R (2002) Adverse respiratory effects and allergic susceptibility in relation to particulate air pollution: flirting with disaster. Allergy 57:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chakraborty A, Gupta T (2010) Chemical characterization and source apportionment of submicron (PM1) aerosol in Kanpur region, India. Aerosol Air Qual Res 10:433–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan CK, Yao X (2008) Air pollution in mega cities in China. Atmos Environ 42:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charron A, Harrison RM (2003) Primary particle formation from vehicle emissions during exhaust dilution in the roadside atmosphere. Atmos Environ 37:4109–4119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colbeck I, Nasir ZA, Ahmad S, Ali Z (2011) Exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and carbon monoxide on roads in Lahore, Pakistan. Aerosol Air Qual Res 11:689–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Colvile RN, Hutchinson EJ, Mindell JS, Warren RF (2001) The transport sector as a source of air pollution. Atmos Environ 35:1537–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cyrys J, Heinrich J, Hoek G et al (2003) Comparison between different traffic-related particle indicators: elemental carbon (EC), PM2.5 mass, and absorbance. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 13:134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Das M, Maiti SK, Mukhopadhyay U (2006) Distribution of PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 in PM10 fraction in ambient air due to vehicular pollution in Kolkata megacity. Environ Monit Assess 122:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dey S, Di Girolamo L, van Donkelaar A et al (2012) Variability of outdoor fine particulate (PM2.5) concentration in the Indian subcontinent: a remote sensing approach. Remote Sens Environ 127:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dubey B, Pal AK, Singh G (2012) Trace metal composition of airborne particulate matter in the coal mining and non-mining areas of Dhanbad Region, Jharkhand, India. Atmos Pollut Res 3:238–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gehrig R, Buchmann B (2003) Characterising seasonal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations based on long-term Swiss monitoring data. Atmos Environ 37:2571–2580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gokhale S, Pandian S (2007) A semi-empirical box modeling approach for predicting the carbon monoxide concentrations at an urban traffic intersection. Atmos Environ 41:7940–7950. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gupta SK, Elumalai SP (2017) Size-segregated particulate matter and its association with respiratory deposition doses among outdoor exercisers in Dhanbad city, India. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 67:1137–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gupta SK, Elumalai SP (2018) Adverse impacts of fog events during winter on fine particulate matter, CO and VOCs: a case study of a highway near Dhanbad, India. Weather 73:396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta SK, Elumalai SP (2019) Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter and deposition dose to auto rickshaw driver in Dhanbad, India. Atmos Pollut Res.
  25. Gupta T, Mandariya A (2013) Sources of submicron aerosol during fog-dominated wintertime at Kanpur. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5615–5629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hai CD, Oanh NTK (2013) Effects of local, regional meteorology and emission sources on mass and compositions of particulate matter in Hanoi. Atmos Environ 78:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Han S, Wu J, Zhang Y et al (2014) Characteristics and formation mechanism of a winter haze–fog episode in Tianjin, China. Atmos Environ 98:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Heim M, Mullins BJ, Umhauer H, Kasper G (2008) Performance evaluation of three optical particle counters with an efficient “multimodal” calibration method. J Aerosol Sci 39:1019–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hien PD, Bac VT, Tham HC et al (2002) Influence of meteorological conditions on PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 concentrations during the monsoon season in Hanoi, Vietnam. Atmos Environ 36:3473–3484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Huang R-J, Zhang Y, Bozzetti C et al (2014) High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China. Nature 514:218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ierodiakonou D, Zanobetti A, Coull BA et al (2016) Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in asthmatic children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 137:390–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jamriska M, Morawska L, Mergersen K (2008) The effect of temperature and humidity on size segregated traffic exhaust particle emissions. Atmos Environ 42:2369–2382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jung KH, Torrone D, Lovinsky-Desir S et al (2017) Short-term exposure to PM2.5 and vanadium and changes in asthma gene DNA methylation and lung function decrements among urban children. Respir Res 18:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kim E, Hopke PK, Pinto JP, Wilson WE (2005) Spatial variability of fine particle mass, components, and source contributions during the regional air pollution study in St. Louis. Environ Sci Technol 39:4172–4179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim KH, Kumar P, Szulejko JE, Adelodun AA, Junaid MF, Uchimiya M, Chambers S (2017) Toward a better understanding of the impact of mass transit air pollutants on human health. Chemosphere 174:268–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Koçak M, Mihalopoulos N, Kubilay N (2007) Chemical composition of the fine and coarse fraction of aerosols in the northeastern Mediterranean. Atmos Environ 41:7351–7368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krzyżanowski M, Kuna-Dibbert B, Schneider J (2005) Health effects of transport-related air pollution. WHO Regional Office Europe, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  38. Kumar A, Elumalai SP (2018) Influence of road paving on particulate matter emission and fingerprinting of elements of road dust. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 75:424–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kumar P, Goel A (2016) Concentration dynamics of coarse and fine particulate matter at and around signalised traffic intersections. Environ Sci Process Impacts 18:1220–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li YJ, Lee BP, Su L et al (2015) Seasonal characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM) based on high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric (HR-ToF-AMS) measurements at the HKUST Supersite in Hong Kong. Atmos Chem Phys 15:37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lianou M, Chalbot M-C, Kotronarou A et al (2007) Dependence of home outdoor particulate mass and number concentrations on residential and traffic features in urban areas. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 57:1507–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marcazzan GM, Vaccaro S, Valli G, Vecchi R (2001) Characterisation of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter in the ambient air of Milan (Italy). Atmos Environ 35:4639–4650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mathis U, Ristimäki J, Mohr M et al (2004) Sampling conditions for the measurement of nucleation mode particles in the exhaust of a diesel vehicle. Aerosol Sci Technol 38:1149–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morgenstern V, Zutavern A, Cyrys J et al (2007) Respiratory health and individual estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in a cohort of young children. Occup Environ Med 64:8–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pachauri T, Singla V, Satsangi A et al (2013) Characterization of major pollution events (dust, haze, and two festival events) at Agra, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5737–5752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pandey P, Khan AH, Verma AK et al (2012) Seasonal trends of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air and their correlation in ambient air of Lucknow City, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pandey B, Agrawal M, Singh S (2014) Assessment of air pollution around coal mining area: emphasizing on spatial distributions, seasonal variations and heavy metals, using cluster and principal component analysis. Atmos Pollut Res 5:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pandian S, Gokhale S, Ghoshal AK (2009) Evaluating effects of traffic and vehicle characteristics on vehicular emissions near traffic intersections. Transp Res Part Transp Environ 14:180–196. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pant P, Shukla A, Kohl SD et al (2015) Characterization of ambient PM2.5 at a pollution hotspot in New Delhi, India and inference of sources. Atmos Env 109:178–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pant P, Habib G, Marshall JD, Peltier RE (2017) PM2.5 exposure in highly polluted cities: a case study from New Delhi, India. Environ Res 156:167–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pérez N, Pey J, Querol X et al (2008) Partitioning of major and trace components in PM10–PM2.5–PM1 at an urban site in Southern Europe. Atmos Environ 42:1677–1691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pérez N, Pey J, Cusack M et al (2010) Variability of particle number, black carbon, and PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 levels and speciation: influence of road traffic emissions on urban air quality. Aerosol Sci Technol 44:487–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pipal AS, Kulshrestha A, Taneja A (2011) Characterization and morphological analysis of airborne PM2.5 and PM10 in Agra located in north central India. Atmos Environ 45:3621–3630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pipal AS, Jan R, Satsangi PG et al (2014) Study of surface morphology, elemental composition and origin of atmospheric aerosols (PM2.5 and PM10) over Agra, India. Aerosol Air Qual Res 14:1685–1700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pope CA III, Burnett RT, Thun MJ et al (2002) Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA 287:1132–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Prabhu V, Gupta SK, Madhwal S, Shridhar V (2019) Exposure to atmospheric particulates and associated respirable deposition dose to street vendors at residential and commercial site in Dehradun city. Saf Health Work.
  57. Rovelli S, Cattaneo A, Borghi F et al (2017) Mass concentration and size-distribution of atmospheric particulate matter in an urban environment. Aerosol Air Qual Res 17:1142–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Roy D, Singh G, Gosai N (2015) Identification of possible sources of atmospheric PM10 using particle size, SEM-EDS and XRD analysis, Jharia Coalfield Dhanbad, India. Environ Monit Assess 187:680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Saarnio K, Sillanpää M, Hillamo R et al (2008) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in size-segregated particulate matter from six urban sites in Europe. Atmos Environ 42:9087–9097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sandeep A, Rao TN, Rao SVB (2015) A comprehensive investigation on afternoon transition of the atmospheric boundary layer over a tropical rural site. Atmos Chem Phys 15:7605–7617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (2016) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Shahsavani A, Naddafi K, Haghighifard NJ et al (2012) The evaluation of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 concentrations during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) events in Ahvaz, Iran, from April through September 2010. J Arid Environ 77:72–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sharma SK, Mandal TK, Arya BC et al (2010) Effects of the solar eclipse on 15 January 2010 on the surface O3, NO, NO2, NH3, CO mixing ratio and the meteorological parameters at Thiruvanathapuram, India. In: Daglis IA (ed) Annales geophysicae. Copernicus GmbH, Germany. vol 28, pp 1199–1205Google Scholar
  64. Singh AK, Mondal GC (2008) Chemical characterization of wet precipitation events and deposition of pollutants in coal mining region, India. J Atmos Chem 59:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Singh S, Tiwari S, Gond DP et al (2015) Intra-seasonal variability of black carbon aerosols over a coal field area at Dhanbad, India. Atmos Res 161:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Singh S, Tiwari S, Hopke PK et al (2018) Ambient black carbon particulate matter in the coal region of Dhanbad, India. Sci Total Environ 615:955–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Srimuruganandam B, Nagendra SMS (2010) Analysis and interpretation of particulate matter—PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 emissions from the heterogeneous traffic near an urban roadway. Atmos Pollut Res 1:184–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Srimuruganandam B, Nagendra SS (2011) Characteristics of particulate matter and heterogeneous traffic in the urban area of India. Atmos Environ 45:3091–3102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Srimuruganandam B, Nagendra SS (2012) Application of positive matrix factorization in characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 emission sources at urban roadside. Chemosphere 88:120–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tiwari S, Srivastava AK, Bisht DS et al (2009) Black carbon and chemical characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site of North India. J Atmospheric Chem 62:193–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tiwari S, Srivastava AK, Chate DM et al (2014) Impacts of the high loadings of primary and secondary aerosols on light extinction at Delhi during wintertime. Atmos Environ 92:60–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tiwari S, Hopke PK, Pipal AS et al (2015) Intra-urban variability of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and its relationship with optical properties of aerosols over Delhi. India. Atmospheric Res 166:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Turner JR, Allen DT (2008) Transport of atmospheric fine particulate matter: part 2—findings from recent field programs on the intraurban variability in fine particulate matter. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 58:196–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. UNFPA (2008) State of world population 2007: unleashing the potential of urban growth. Accessed 04 Oct 2016
  75. Vara-Vela A, Andrade MF, Kumar P et al (2016) Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model. Atmos Chem Phys 16:777–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Viana M, Kuhlbusch TAJ, Querol X et al (2008) Source apportionment of particulate matter in Europe: a review of methods and results. J Aerosol Sci 39:827–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. von Schneidemesser E, Monks PS, Plass-Duelmer C (2010) Global comparison of VOC and CO observations in urban areas. Atmos Environ 44:5053–5064. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wang Y, Hopke PK, Utell MJ (2011) Urban-scale spatial-temporal variability of black carbon and winter residential wood combustion particles. Aerosol Air Qual Res 11:473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Warneke C, McKeen SA, De Gouw JA et al (2007) Determination of urban volatile organic compound emission ratios and comparison with an emissions database. J Geophys Res Atmospheres 112:D10S47(1–13)Google Scholar
  80. Wehner B, Wiedensohler A (2003) Long term measurements of submicrometer urban aerosols: statistical analysis for correlations with meteorological conditions and trace gases. Atmos Chem Phys 3:867–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. WHO (World Health Organization) (2000) Air quality guidelines for Europe. WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 91, WHO Regional Office for Europe, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  82. WHO (2016) WHO (World Health Organization) releases country estimates on air pollution exposure and health impact. Accessed 30 Dec 2017
  83. Yadav SK, Jain MK (2017) Exposure to particulate matter in different regions along a road network, Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. Curr Sci 00113891:112Google Scholar
  84. Yadav S, Praveen OD, Satsangi PG (2015) The effect of climate and meteorological changes on particulate matter in Pune, India. Environ Monit Assess 187:402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yadav R, Sahu LK, Beig G et al (2017) Ambient particulate matter and carbon monoxide at an urban site of India: influence of anthropogenic emissions and dust storms. Environ Pollut 225:291–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang Y-L, Cao F (2015) Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in China at a city level. Sci Rep 5:14884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhu Y, Hinds WC, Kim S et al (2002) Study of ultrafine particles near a major highway with heavy-duty diesel traffic. Atmos Environ 36:4323–4335CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations