Occurrence, Seasonal Variation and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in the Surface Water of North China
In this study, the occurrence, seasonal, and spatial variations of four classes antibiotics were investigated in the surface water of North China. Water samples were taken from 24 sampling sites along rivers in May and August and antibiotics in water samples were detected by SPE-UPLC-MS/MS. The occurrence of all antibiotics except for FLO in May were higher than in August. The mean concentrations of four classes antibiotics detected in May and August were in the following order respectively: quinolones (421.23 ng/L) > tetracyclines (28.37 ng/L) > amphenicols (20.38 ng/L) > sulfonamides (5.79 ng/L) and amphenicols (284.36 ng/L) > quinolones (15.74 ng/L) > tetracyclines (3.05 ng/L) > sulfonamides (0.20 ng/L). The results showed that quinolones and amphenicols were dominant antibiotics among four classes antibiotics. To explore the source of antibiotics from the fish ponds nearby, antibiotic concentration data, which was investigated in the sediment, fish feed and fish revealed a direct relationship between the main antibiotics and fish farms along the rivers. Risk assessment data indicated enrofloxacin and florfenicol could cause higher safety risks to aquatic organisms compared to other antibiotics.
This work was funded by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (ZZ1706). The author thanks the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center for its help in collecting water samples.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.
- Campagnolo ER, Johnson KR, Karpati A, Rubin CS, Kolpin D, Meyer MT, Esteban JE, Currier RW, Smith K, Thu KM, McGeehin M (2002) Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations. Sci Total Environ 299(1):89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chen H, Chen H, Ying J, Huang J, Liao L (2009) Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography as an efficient and sensitive technique for simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol in honey. Anal Chim Acta 632(1):80–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang J, Leung D (2007) Analyses of macrolide antibiotic residues in eggs, raw milk, and honey using both ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 21(19):3213–3222CrossRefGoogle Scholar