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Distribution, Toxic Potential, and Influence of Land Use on Conventional and Emerging Contaminants in Urban Stormwater Pond Sediments

  • Judy L. CraneEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study examined the distribution and toxic potential of conventional and emerging contaminants in composite sediment samples from 15 stormwater ponds in the Minneapolis–St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Previously, coal tar-based sealants were shown to be a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to these ponds, and concentrations of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) equivalents were influencing management options about pond maintenance. For the second component of this study, a complex mixture of 13 metal(loid)s, 4-nonylphenols, 8 brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), and total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in all surficial samples. Contaminants with detection frequencies ≥ 20% included: silver (46.7%), beryllium (20.0%), chloride (60.0%), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (60.0%), 10 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs; 26.7–80.0%), 4-nonylphenol monoethoxylate (66.7%), 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate (40.0%), bifenthrin (20.0%), total permethrins (33.3%), and 24 other BDE congener groups (20.0–93.3%). Five stormwater ponds had contaminants exceeding benchmarks likely to be associated with harmful effects to benthic organisms. Ponds with watersheds dominated by either commercial and/or industrial land uses had significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of zinc, 4-nonylphenol, six BDEs (28 + 33, 47, 99, 100, 154, and 209), and total PBDEs than those dominated by residential land uses. Multivariate statistical analyses verified that updated B[a]P equivalents were an effective chemical proxy for making management decisions about excavated pond sediment. Jurisdictions that do not test their stormwater pond sediments prior to maintenance dredging should consider the environmental ramifications of applying this potentially contaminated material to land.

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

APs

Alkylphenols

APEs

Alkylphenol ethoxylates

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

B[a]P

Benzo[a]pyrene

BDE

Brominated diphenyl ether

BFRs

Brominated flame retardants

BMP

Best management practice

BTBPE

1,2-Bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane

CA

California

CECs

Contaminants of emerging concern

cPAHs

Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

CT-sealant

Coal tar-based sealant

DBDPE

Decabromodiphenylethane

DEHP

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

EDCs

Endocrine-disrupting compounds

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

ESB

Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark

ESM

Electronic supplementary material

GC

Gas chromatography

HBB

Hexabromobenzene

HBCDD

Hexabromocyclododecane

HCA

Hierarchical cluster analysis

HRGC/LRMS

High resolution gas chromatography/low-resolution mass spectrometry

HRMS

High resolution mass spectrometer

ISQGs

Interim sediment quality guidelines

Kow

Octanol-water partition coefficient

LC

Liquid chromatography

LC50

Median lethal concentration

LEB

Likely effect benchmark

ln

Natural log

MMCD

Metropolitan Mosquito Control District

MN

Minnesota

MPCA

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

MS

Mass spectrometry or spectrometer

MS4

Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System

NPs

Nonylphenols

4-NP

4-Nonylphenol

NPEs

Nonylphenol ethoxylates

4-NP1EO

4-Nonylphenol monoethoxylate

4-NP2EO

4-Nonylphenol diethoxylate

OC

Organic carbon

OH

Ohio

PAEs

Phthalate esters

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PBDE

Polybrominated diphenyl ether

PBEB

Pentabromoethylbenzene

PC

Principal component

PCA

Principal components analysis

PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenyls

PEC

Probable effect concentration

PEC-Qs

Probable effect concentration quotients

PFASs

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances

PFBA

Perfluorobutanoate

PFBS

Perfluorobutane sulfonate

PFCAs

Perfluorocarboxylates

PFDA

Perfluorodecanoate

PFDoA

Perfluorododecanoate

PFHpA

Perfluoroheptanoate

PFHxA

Perfluorohexanoate

PFHxS

Perfluorohexane sulfonate

PFNA

Perfluorononanoate

PFOA

Perfluorooctanoic acid or perfluorooctanoate

PFOS

Perfluorooctane sulfonate

PFOSA

Perfluorooctane sulfonamide

PFPeA

Perfluoropentanoate

PFUnA

Perfluoroundecanoate

QA/QC

Quality assurance/quality control

SD

Standard deviation

SQT

Sediment quality target

SRV

Soil reference value

SVOCs

Semivolatile organic compounds

TCEP

Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate

TDCPP

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate

TEB

Threshold effect benchmark

TEQ

Toxic equivalent

TOC

Total organic carbon

TU

Toxic unit

TX

Texas

USEPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

USGS

United States Geological Survey

UTL95-95

The 95% upper tolerance limit with 95% coverage

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

Notes

Acknowledgements

Staff from ten Minnesota cities proposed stormwater pond monitoring sites and provided ancillary data. Field work assistance was provided by the following MPCA staff: Harold Wiegner, Alexander Levchuk, Steven Hennes, Mike Walerak, Mike Anderson, Mary Jean Fenske, Dale Thompson, Anna Kerr, Louise Hotka, and Steven Weiss. Other MPCA assistance was provided by William Scruton (QA/QC), Kris Parson and Shawn Nelson (GIS maps), and Bonnie Brooks (SRV applications). Sections of the manuscript were reviewed internally by Bill Cole, David Fairbairn, and Mike Trojan (MPCA). Angie Whetung coordinated the analytical work at AXYS Analytical Services Ltd. for all CECs, Diane Anderson (Pace Analytical Services Inc.) did so for SVOCs, and Jeff Brenner (Minnesota Department of Health) managed the analysis of metal(loid)s and chloride. The anonymous reviewer comments were very helpful and appreciated. This project was funded by Minnesota Legislature House File 1231.

Supplementary material

244_2019_598_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2102 kb)

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Minnesota Pollution Control AgencySt. PaulUSA

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