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Evaluation of New Diagnostic Ratios of Naphthalenes and Fluorenes by Identifying Severely Weathered Oils Collected in Laboratory Simulations and Coastal Weathering Experiments

  • Bin Han
  • Zhuanling Song
  • Qian Li
  • Li Zheng
Article

Abstract

The composition and physical properties of spilled oil have great changes during the seriously weathering process. It brings great difficulties to the source identification of oil spill. So, the stable and trustworthy diagnostic ratios (DRs) for accurate identification of severely weathered spilled oils are very important. The explosion of Sinopec pipeline happened on November 22, 2013 at Qingdao, China. Local beaches at Jiaozhou Bay were polluted by spilled oils. We have collected original spilled oil samples from an area free from human interference near the oil leakage point after the accident. Synchronized with actual beach weathering, laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate oil weathering for 360 days by using the collected original spilled oil samples. Based on the t test and the repeatability limit method, 65 DRs of naphthalenes and fluorenes were screened. Fifteen DRs, namely, C2Nap/(C2Nap + C3Nap), C2Nap/(C2Nap + C4Nap), C2Nap/total Nap, C3Nap/(C3Nap + C4Nap), C3Nap/total Nap, C4Nap/total Nap, C2Flu/(C2Flu + C3Flu), C2Flu/total Flu, C2Nap/(C2Nap + Flu), C2Nap/(C2Nap + C1Flu), C2Nap/(C2Nap + C2Flu), C2Nap/(C2Nap + C3Flu), C3Nap/(C3Nap + Flu),C3Nap/(C3Nap + C1Flu), total Nap/(total Nap + total Flu), have maintained remarkable stability during the simulated weathering experiments and field weathering process. These stable ratios can retain the characteristics of oil source during weathering. They are very beneficial to improve the accuracy of identifying the source of severely weathered oil and can be used as an effective supplement to existing index system for source identification.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by China-ASEAN Maritime Cooperation Fund: East Asia Marine Cooperation Platform, Basic Scientific Fund for National Public Research Institutes of China (2017Q05), and the project of the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFC0503602).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Marine Bioactive Substances and Modern Analytical Technology, First Institute of OceanographyState Oceanic AdministrationQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental ScienceQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

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