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Oxidative and Cellular Metabolic Stress of Fish: An Appealing Tool for Biomonitoring of Metal Contamination in the Kolkata Wetland, a Ramsar Site

  • Neeraj KumarEmail author
  • K. K. Krishnani
  • Narendra Pratap Singh
Article

Abstract

The present study delineate the various biochemical and histopathological tool to evaluate as strong biomarker in the field condition for detection of the least and maximize level of pollution and contamination. We have collected Labeo rohita from 13 different sites from East Kolkata wetland to determine biochemical and histopathological status to analyse metal contamination in the significant biological hot spot EKW. The biochemical marker as antioxidative status, i.e., catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver and gill, were remarkably higher (p < 0.01) at some of the sampling sites, but catalase in brain, SOD in kidney, GST in brain and kidney, and neurotransmitter as acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in brain were not significant (p > 0.05) among the sampling sites. The glycolytic enzymes, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in liver, gill, and muscle, and protein metabolic enzymes, such as alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in liver, gill, muscle, and kidney, were noticeably higher (p < 0.01) at some of the sampling sites. The histopathology of the liver and gill were altered at different sampling sites, such as blood congestion, leucocyte infiltration with parenchymal vacuolisation, nucleus with blood vessels, hepatocytes granular degeneration, haemorrhage, karyorrhexis, shrink nucleus, and pyknotic nuclei in liver. In the gill, structural changes, such as complete destruction and shortening of secondary gill lamellae, blood vessel in gill arch, curling of secondary gill lamellae, aneurism in gill lamellae, and neoplasia, were observed. Most of the metals were found within the safe limit all along the 13 sampling sites, indicating that fishes are safe for the consumption. Based on our finding, we could recommend that a rational application of biochemical profiles, such as oxidative and metabolic stress parameters, including histopathology to be used as biomarkers for biomonitoring the metal contamination in the aquatic environment.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors express sincere gratitude to the Director, ICAR-National Institute of abiotic Stress Management, Baramati, Pune for providing all the facilities to conduct the present work. The authors are thankful to Mr. Ronald Singh for drawing of sampling map of East Kolkata Wetland. The financial assistance provided by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, India as institutional project (#IXX12494) is highly acknowledged.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-National Institute of Abiotic Stress ManagementBaramati, PuneIndia

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